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Diet for hypertension


02.06.2015
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Diet for hypertension


   Diet for high blood pressure should be chosen depending on the associated diseases and metabolic disorders (diabetes, obesity, kidney disease, lipid disorders, and others). Therefore, you should always consult a dietitian to recommend an individual. Easily digestible diet, with an energy limit 1500 - 2000 kcal is valid.





General principles of diet in hypertension

• weight loss,
• reducing salt intake,
• Increase intake of potassium and magnesium,
• Increase physical activity (swimming, tennis, cycling, walking),
• avoidance of stress and alcohol consumption,
• reduction of drinking coffee, up to 2 cups a day,
• quit smoking.



Recommended changes the diet:

• vegetable oils containing polyunsaturated fatty acids such as sunflower oil, soybean oil and olive oil and rapeseed oil containing monounsaturated fatty acids should be a source of fat,
• intake of animal fats like butter and cream, egg yolks should be limited, lard, bacon, fatty meat and meat products, coffee creamers, hard margarine should be excluded
• consumption of fish twice a week is recommended,
• fruits and vegetables four times a day in the raw form as a supply of fiber, vitamins, flavonoids (especially apples, black currant, aronia, citrus, dried), walnuts containing omega 3 fatty acids are indicated,
• limit the intake of sugar, sweets, high sweetened jams, honey,
• lean meat: turkey, chicken, veal, lean meats and fish (in a limited amount of marine fat), low fat cheese, low fat milk, yoghurt, kefir should be a source of protein,
• whole wheat, with the addition of cereal grains, sunflower seeds, caraway seeds, nuts, fruits and vegetables should be a source of carbohydrates, noodles, dumplings, pasta should be limited due to its high calorific value,
• techniques of cooking are boiling, stewing without fat, roast in foil and parchment, grilled,
• mushrooms, roux, fat broths from meat or bones are not recommended



Reducing sodium intake

   Reducing the amount of sodium (salt, monosodium glutamate) may lower blood pressure by up to 10%.

• 1 teaspoon of salt per day (3 g) is recommended,
• do not salt meals,
• exclude: crisps, salted nuts, canned, cured, marinated foods, crackers, bread sticks, corn chips, ready meals in restaurants and bars, fast-food items (hamburgers, casseroles, pizza), ripening cheeses, processed cheese, sheep, mixed vegetables , salt, garlic, bouillon cubes, ketchup, sauces extracts, mustard, mayonnaise, silage (pickled cabbage), smoked fish and meats (ham, salami, tenderloin, ham), salted fish ,
• drink mineral water with low sodium content,
• replace the salt by herbs spices: pepper, basil, chilli, marjoram, oregano, nutmeg, rosemary, parsley, cumin, thyme, garlic, mint, allspice, dill, sage,
• caution: salt substitutes contain potassium, magnesium and can not be used in renal impairment.



Products rich in potassium

   A considerable amount of potassium orally can reduce high blood pressure. Particularly rich in potassium are:

• milk powder,
• confectionery products: cocoa, chocolate, halvah, nuts, raisins, products made of poppy seeds,
• legume seeds: soybean, peas, beans,
• meat and meat products, fish,
• cereals: buckwheat and barley, wheat bran, corn flakes, oats and wheat and rye crisp, pumpernickel bread,
• fruit: gooseberries, bananas, apricots, peaches, black currant and red grapes, pineapple, dried, juices and fruit concentrates
• vegetables: potatoes, beets, parsley, eggplant, zucchini, garlic, dill, tomatoes, spinach, horseradish, green peas, broad beans, turnips, mushrooms, tomato paste.



Products rich in magnesium

   Like potassium an increased amount of magnesium act upon the body. Particularly rich in magnesium are:

• pulses,
• cereal: oatmeal, crunchy bread, barley, wheat and flour, bran and wheat germ,
• fish: mackerel, salmon, herring,
• confectionery products: cocoa, dark chocolate,
• almonds, peanuts, raisins,
• corn, bananas, peaches, prunes, celery, potatoes cooked in skin,



Example - diet in hypertension:

Breakfast: Muesli with yoghurt, brown bread, low-fat margarine, chicken sausage, salad with carrots and apples
Lunch: black currant juice, crisp bread
Dinner: pure white borscht, risotto with tomato sauce, red cabbage salad, fruit jelly
Snack: bun
Supper: omelet of whites with spinach, bread, fruit tea




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