Diet in colon diverticulosis guidelines :
The formation of diverticula (or invagination) of large intestine mucosa is closely associated with inadequate nutrition, but also some influence of genetic factors has been found. The disease most often occurs in people who have completed 40 years. Diverticula can occur in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract - the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine. Usually their presence does not cause major problems.
Although there might be serious consequences, such as the development of inflammation, abscesses, peritonitis. Their reason may be the accumulation of fecal matter in invaginations that, if it is heavily concentrated - damages the mucous membrane and causes its inflammation. Among the symptoms of diverticulosis we can distinguish epigastric pain radiating to the disturbances in passing stools and blood in the stool (approximately 20% of respondents). Epidemiological studies have shown that the disease is very rare in countries with low economic development and in people on a vegetarian diet. This is due to the amount of dietary fiber in the diet. In rich countries, where the diet is based mainly on processed food, wherein the amount of dietary fiber is small, there is a greater risk of diverticulosis development. Recall that the fiber is the part of food of plant that is not digested in the human digestive tract. It does not provide more energy or nutrients such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates and minerals. Dietary fiber is not a single substance, but a group of substances consisting of compounds with very different chemical structure and physical properties. Here we distinguish soluble and insoluble components. To the soluble fraction belong pectic substances, some hemicelluloses, gums, mucilages, while to the insoluble fraction - cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin remaining. The fraction of insoluble and soluble fibers interact in different ways on the processes in the light of the gastrointestinal tract. The insoluble in water fraction accelerates the passage (move) of chyme, increases fecal weight, slows the hydrolysis of starch. The soluble fraction has a gel-forming properties and bonding in the structures of nutrients, especially calcium, iron and zinc, reduce their absorption. Therefore high fiber containing diet must be administered with caution in patients with bone disease and iron deficiency, anemia. Soluble fraction also slows the passage of gastric contents and absorption of glucose, as well as increases the excretion of bile acids. Such a large effect of dietary fiber on digestive system makes its deficiency in the diet to be liable for the emergence and development of certain gastrointestinal diseases, such as functional bowel disorders, inflammatory bowel diverticulitis and hemorrhoids, or colon polyps. In acute conditions often requires hospital treatment with antibiotic treatment.
The main principles of the diet
• High fiber diet should contain 30 - 50 g of dietary fiber. Therefore it is necessary to consume products that are high in fiber, which unfortunately we have very little in the usual diet. These include, first of all, bran, dried legumes (peas, beans, broad beans, soy), sugar, nuts and brown pasta. A little less dietary fiber includes wholemeal bread, fresh seeds of legumes and cereals, grits and spinach. As a source of dietary fiber potatoes are also recommended.
• High fiber products should be introduced into the diet slowly. The easiest way is to replace the rye bread with light bread, and purified cereal and rice with thick groats, e.g. hulled barley, buckwheat and oats.
• You must also eat a lot of vegetables. In addition to the recommended legume seeds: carrots, cabbage, cucumbers, beets, spinach, lettuce, tomatoes and potatoes. Remember that legumes, although they are rich in fiber, are also hard to digest and in some people, can cause bloating.
• The diet should also contain a lot of fruit. It is above all: blackberries, currants, plums - also dried pears, blueberries, apples and peaches. In the case of apples and pears, it is preferable to consume them together with the skin.
• An additional source of dietary fiber may be wheat bran, which is typically administered three times a day for a spoon. Best consumed in combination with dairy products such as milk, yoghurt or kefir.
• Avoid products that provide large amounts of fat. Lean meats species, such as veal, chicken, turkeys, rabbits should be chosen. Fatty meats such as offal meats, pates, canned meat products should be excluded.
• Recommended methods of cooking are boiling, stewing without added fat and roasting in the foil.
• If drugs are used simultaneously with high fiber diet, keep the 2 - hour interval between meals and medication administration. Because fiber can reduce the effectiveness of certain pharmacological agents.