Diet in type 1 diabetes guidelines:
Regular consumption of food is the foundation of the diet in type 1 diabetes. The cause of type 1 diabetes, called insulin-dependent diabetes, is damage of the insulin-producing pancreatic cells. The essence of this disease is a deficiency of insulin in the body, the consequence is the inability to control blood glucose levels and its excessive growth. In type 1 diabetes suffers mostly young people (before 30 years old), it is often said that it is juvenile onset diabetes. It requires regular insulin. This disease occurs much less frequently than type 2 diabetes.
Reasons of its development are not fully understood. The development of this disease have their share of genetic, hereditary, viral infections and abnormal defense reaction of young organisms. Proper diet is essential for the treatment of diabetes. Body weight of sick people is generally normal or even underweight, so diet is not tasked for weight reduction. Energetic value should be tailored to individual needs of each patient, and take into account gender, age, physiological status and physical activity performed by a person. In type 1 diabetes at the same time the most important and most difficult thing is to adjust the diet to the time of administration of insulin and its relevant doses. Meals should be eaten regularly to prevent too large fluctuations in blood glucose levels. The number of meals depends on the number of insulin injections, and on the type of (time), so for each person diet should be determined individually by physician and dietitian. Usually it is advisable to eat 5-7 meals a day. The daily food intake must be provided in the breakfast, lunch, dinner, afternoon snack, the first supper, and sometimes the second one. Sometimes it is also necessary to eat something additional just before bedtime. Meal times should be fixed and adjusted to the time of administration of insulin and planned exercises. When using fast-acting insulin meal must be consumed at most 30 min after the injection, the administration of insulin by indirectly extended operation - 40 min after injection; long-acting insulin - 1 hour after the injection, in the case of mixtures with varying insulin action a meal time is dependent on most fast-acting insulin in the formulation (those recommendations must be discussed with physician). In the last 20 years much has changed in terms of knowledge about the impact of diet on the course of diabetes, and with the dietary guidelines for patients. We now understand that high fat intake promotes the development of heart disease, which are especially vulnerable people with diabetes. Complex carbohydrates not only does not hinder the treatment of diabetes, but also helps in regulating blood glucose levels.
The main principles of the diet in type 1 diabetes
• Remember to regularly diversify food consumption and diet. In the 2-3 main meals products containing animal protein should be included - milk and milk products, fish, lean meats and sausage, egg.
• Do not forget about complex carbohydrates, which are designed to provide 50-60% energy diet (15-20% protein, and fat in less than 30%). They best source of it are cereal, pasta, whole wheat bread and potatoes and legumes (also containing vegetable protein).
• Remember to keep it in your diet grains, vegetables and fruits - a valuable source of dietary fiber. It is recommended to eat fruits and vegetables at each meal, preferably raw. Eating of too much grapes, mangoes and bananas, should be avoided, because they contain a lot of simple sugars.
• Do not eat canned and dried fruits because they provide large amounts of sugar.
• Choose low in fat and cholesterol meat products. This is important in preventing atherosclerosis on which diabetes are exposed to a greater extent. It is also worth (due to the prevention of atherosclerotic) 2-3 times a week instead of meat for dinner to eat fish, especially marine.
• Avoid the use of sweets, soft drinks and all confectionery products. They cause a sharp rise in blood glucose levels. In cases of adjusted diabetes it is possible to eat small amounts of sweets with other food products, as they haven’t got such a significant effect on postprandial glycaemia.
• Avoid alcohol.
• Limit intake of salt and products with its high content, such as fast, canned, processed and smoked food.