Hyperthyroidism diet guidelines:
The main task is to provide an increased dietary energy, protein and vitamins. The thyroid is one of the largest and most important endocrine glands. Secretes hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine, which have a strong effect on many political changes: they regulate metabolism, growth, maturation, nervous system, muscles and circulatory system. Thyroid disorders can be very dangerous for health. One of them is an overactive thyroid gland, which causes oxygen consumption increase, heat production, transformation of proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
This cause weight loss, increased appetite, palpitations, anxiety, body trembling, heat intolerance and excessive sweating. In more severe cases diarrhea and swelling of the extremities accur. The basis for the treatment of this disease is a pharmacological treatment, diet is only an effective support. The main role of the diet is to provide an increased amount of energy to cover increased demand for nutrients. Dietary energy content depends on the severity of hyperthyroidism. It is therefore recommended that, with moderate hyperthyroidism increase the amount of energy by 15-25% in relation to norms recommended for healthy people. In a severe hyperthyroidism energetic diet must be increased by as much as 50-80%. In some cases it is a need to supply the diet up to 5000 calories! Daily food ration should be spread over 5-6 meals. The first breakfast should provide 25% of energy, second breakfast - 10%, Dinner - 30%, afternoon snack - 15%, and supper - 20%.
The main principles of the diet
• Because of the increased protein breakdown, it is necessary to follow the rich in protein diet. It is recommended to provide 1,5-2 g protein / kg body weight during a day, an average of 110 to 130 g of protein per day. For comparison, healthy adults need 0,8 g / kg / day. Most of the protein (about 2/3) should be of an animal origin. The number of products such as milk, kefir, yogurts, cottage cheese, eggs, lean meat species (beef, veal, chicken, turkey, rabbit) and meat (meat of poultry, beef, ham) should be increased in a diet. Good sources of protein are lean fish such as cod, perch, pike. Rich in protein products are recommended to consume at each meal during a day.
• It is necessary to reduce fats in a diet. Its amount in a daily ration cannot exceed 70 g per day. Most of the fat should have a vegetable oils origin. Consuming products of an animal
origin, such as lard, tallow, bacon, meat offals, tinned meat should be refrained from.
• In a hyperthyroidism, the demand for vitamins and minerals is increased, especially for vitamin A, C, B1 and calcium. The best sources of the vitamin C include: parsley (177,7 mg vitamin C/100 g of the product), red pepper (144 mg), broccoli (83 mg), spinach (67,8 mg), lemon and orange (49-50 mg ), strawberry (66 mg).
Vitamin A reduces the effect of hyperthyroidism. Products of a plant origin provide provitamin A (beta-carotene, from which the vitamin A creates in the body). These include carrots, peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, apricots, peaches. Despite the large amount of vitamins the amount of fruits and vegetables, especially raw in our diet, should not be too large. They contain large amounts of fiber, which reduces the absorption of some nutrients and reduces the assimilation of energy from a diet. Source of vitamin B1 should be primarily cereal products, milk and dairy products, eggs, fish. Milk and dairy products also provide calcium, on which also increases the demand.
• The cooking style plays a significant role in the diet. Because of the possible occurrence of diarrhea, it is necessary to follow the instructions to light diet. Fatty and fried food should be avoided. Among cooking styles we recommend cooking in water and steaming, stewing without frying, roasting in the foil. Products deteriorating the gastrointestinal tract, causing irritation or bulge out are undesirable. These include cabbage, brussels sprouts, peas, soybeans, walnuts, almonds, coarse-grained groats. It is also worth to resign from spices such as paprika, pepper, chili. The mild spices are recommended: vanilla, dill, cumin, parsley, lemon juice and cinnamon.
• Due to increased demand for nutrients, products low in nutritional values which provide only "empty calories" such as sweets, cakes, chips, salty sticks, snacks should be excluded from the diet. Instead, the desserts products can be replaced with puddings, fruit jellies, purées and fruit salads.
• People suffering from hyperthyroidism complain of feeling hot constantly . Often they are found in low-grade fever or a temperature rising of up to 38 oC. In order not to worsen these symptoms, it is advisable to opt out of hot drinks and meals such as soups.
• Drinking coffee and tea, even cold, should be limited because of the adverse effects of caffeine on the cardiovascular system (increases heart rates) and the nervous system.
• In cases of severe diarrhea symptoms, it is recommended to use semi-liquid diet, based on gruels. It is prepared from rice or semolina boiled in water or milk with a salt addition. Semolina poured into cold water must be 10 times the volume of semolina and then boiled for 2-3 hours, adding water as its boiling out. Semolina must be strained afterwards. The aim of long cooking is to overcook starch and its conversion into starch mucilage. Then you can spice up a menu adding: soft-boiled egg, mashed potatoes, boiled traditionally or steamed minced meat. The meat should be selected and chosen only lean and delicate species: veal, lean poultry - chicken or turkey without skin.
Example of hyperthyroidism diet
Breakfast: soup with milk poured noodles, wheat bread with margarine, hard-boiled egg with mayonnaise and radish
Second breakfast: wheat roll with margarine and loin, tomato salad (peeled), plain yogurt
Dinner: Vegetable soup with rice, boiled chicken, mashed potatoes, beets, fruit juice
Afternoon snack: Dumplings filled with cottage cheese, squeezed carrot and apple juice
Supper: Greek-style fish, wheat bread, banana, mineral water