glycemic index

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Glycemic index (Glycaemic index)

Introduction

Tables of Glycemic Indexes

Interesting facts


Introduction

  Glycemic Index (Glycaemic Index) (GI) is a list of products ranked in view of glucose level in blood after their consumption. It is calculated by dividing glucose level in blood after conducting a nourishing test with share of 50 g of carbohydrates by the glucose level received after a particular product consumption. For instance glycemic index which is equal 70 means that after consumption of 50 g of a particular product the glucose level will increase of 70%, as after consumption of 50 g of pure glucose. Glycemic index of food cannot be established on the base of its composition or indexes of carbohydrates contained in this food. To set it one should give a particular product to a particular person. The particular product is given to a group of people every second hour, every quarter an hour their blood is collected and the sugar level is checked. In that way the average value of GI is obtained. It has been claimed the mean value is repeatable and tests conducted in different groups of volunteers give close results. Results received in people suffering from diabetes are comparable with results of healthy people. The higher GI value of a particular product the higher glucose level in blood after its consumption. Having eaten carbohydrate of high GI leads to a rapid increase of sugar level causing high insulin burst in response. The level of sugar quickly drops down and similarly to a pendulum which has tilt to one side and has to do the same to the opposite one - the sugar level does not decrease to the output value but significantly lower, badly tolerated by organism and called hypoglycemia. Apart from different unpleasant feelings a symptom of hypoglycemia is hunger. The willingness to satisfy it is a reason of uncontrolled eating. Products of high GI are conducive to weight gaining in two ways: they provoke hunger what is conducive to more frequent eating and they act anabolically thanks causing high increases of insulin level. Insulin regulates sugar level but also results in activation of processes of absorption and storing defined by the name of anabolism, what practically means weight gaining. Insulin activates processes of neolipogenesis - fat forming - mainly from provided carbohydrates. In such form storing follows. Additionally insulin makes easier depositing of fats circulating in blood serum to fatty cells. So it is so-called anabolical hormone.
   High insulin level is conducive to weight gaining. Such high level is associated with some groups of carbohydrates, which in rapid and significant way increase momentary glucose level in blood serum, in other words they have so-called high glycemic index (higher or equal 70), whereas consumption of product of low glycemic index causes slow and relatively small increase of sugar level and what fallows - little insulin burst. Such products are not allies of weight gaining. It is worth to remember that processing of foodstuffs (heat treatment, heat treatment time) increases their glycemic index.




Tables of Glycemic Indexes

Glycemic Index (Glycaemic Index) range

Low GI = 55 or less
Medium GI = 56-69
High GI = 70 or more

Product

Glycemic
Index

Apple juice 40
Apples - fresh 38
Apples - dried 29
Apricots - dried 30
Apricots - fresh 15
Aubergines - fresh 15
Bananas 59
Bananas (mature) 72
Barley - grains 45
Bean sprouts Mung 25
Beans - black 30
Beans - Romano beans 46
Beans - string bean 71
Beans - white 40
Beans - white, cooked 33
Beetroots 65
Biscuits 57
Brans 55
Bread - french bread 95
Bread - pumpernickel 40
Bread - wheat 85
Bread - white 95
Bread - wholemeal, rye 58
Buckwheat groats - cooked 54
Carrot juice - fresh 43
Carrots - fresh 30
Carrots - long-cooked 85
Chocolate - milk 49
Chocolate - natural, unsweetened 22
Chocolate - white 44
Coca Cola 63
Corn - canned 55
Corn - grains 69
Corn - sweet 53
Corn flakes 84
Corn flour 70
Couscous groats - cooked 65
Crisps (US Chips) 90
Dates - dried 103
Fanta 68
Figs - dried 35
French fries 95
Fructose 20
Garlic - fresh 15
Glucose 100
Green peas 45
Green peas - canned 61
Grapefruit juice  48
Grapefruits 25
Grapes 46
Honey 87
Ice cream - with milk 61
Kiwi fruit 52
Lactose 46
Lentils - canned 44
Lentils - green, cooked 30
Macaroni 65
Maltose 110
Mango 55
Mars bar 65
Melon 65
Milk - 3% fat 27
Milk - curds 32
Milk - skimmed 32
Milk - sweetened, condensed 61
Millet 70
Millet groats - cooked 71
Nutella - chocolate cream 33
Nuts 22
Onion - fresh 15
Orange juice 52
Oranges 44
Peaches 29
Peaches - canned 52
Pears 42
Peanuts - salted, roasted 14
Pineapple juice 46
Pineapples 59
Plums 30
Popcorn 72
Potato dumplings 52
Potatoes - cooked 95
Potatoes - young 57
Potatoes - baked 85
Potatoes - puree 90
Pudding 43
Pumpkin - fresh 75
Raisins 64
Rice - Basmati, cooked 60
Rice - brown (natural), cooked 55
Rice - long-grainy, cooked 56
Rice - white, cooked 70
Rice flakes 80
Rice gruel 90
Rye - grains 34
Semolina 58
Sour cherries 25
Soya beans 14
Soya beans - canned 18
Sponge cake 46
Strawberries 40
Sugar 68
Sweet cherries 23
Tomato juice - without sugar 38
Tomatoes 15
Twix bar 44
Turnip 72
Watermelons 75
Wheat - grains 41
Yogurt - natural without sugar 15
Yogurt - with sugar and fruit 36



Interesting facts

  Glycemic index (Glycaemic index) of foodstuffs consumed in their natural form is much lower than of ones cooked or processed in any other way. Whole-wheat cereals and bakery products made from whole-wheat flour contain much fiber, vitamins and marginal elements, which have the ability to lower high glucose level in blood. To make glycemic index of eaten goods not high we must take into consideration the following aspects:

  • dietary fiber (dietary fibre) delays carbohydrate transformation by partial denying of glucose to blood access. It can also increase the sensitivity of receptors susceptible to insulin in a muscle in the way that glucose easier reaches to a cell. If receptors are low-sensitive, then pancreas increases insulin secretion to balance glucose inflow to cells of muscles,

  • the form of product - if it is grained or processed in any other way, if whole-wheat grains or fibers occur in it,

  • the level of preparation or cooking what allows to check starch content,

  • fructose or lactose presence (both have low glycemic index),

  • the time of food consumption, it affects glucose secretion to blood - the faster you it the faster it is,

  • products rich in fats, of low glycemic index may be wrong classified, because fats and protein slow down stomach emptying, and what is the same the speed of digestion in small intestine, so their glycemic index may be relevantly lower than the one of products containing less fat.



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