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Macro minerals and trace minerals


18.07.2014
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Macro minerals and trace minerals


Introduction

Classification of minerals, functions, food sources, nutritional requirements, interesting facts



Introduction

  Mineral elements are essential for human's life compounds which ensure right growth, reproduction and health within the whole period of lifetime. Mineral ingredients of plant and animal organisms are called these ones which after burning remain in form of ash. Mineral ingredients are around 4% of body mass. For their amount fold up 46 ingredients, and 30 of them are thought as essential to live. Mineral ingredients are taken almost solely with nourishment, because human's organism has no ability to produce them.






Classification of minerals, functions, food sources, nutritional requirements, interesting facts

  Mineral ingredients in respect of organism demand are divided into two groups: macro elements and micro elements (trace elements). Macro elements are elements for which daily requirement exceeds 100 [mg]. Daily requirement for micro elements does not transcend 100 [mg]. 

Macro minerals (elements):


Trace minerals (micro elements):

 

 

 

Calcium

Function of minerals: 
Calcium constitutes a part of build material of bones and enamel. Calcium is constantly exchanged - this exchange is based on building it into bones and enamel and resorption. It fulfills a role in conducting nervous impulses, mechanism of muscle contraction, permeability of cellular membranes, in adjustment of blood coagulation process, adjustment of heart beat and absorption of vitamin B12, affect arterial pressure control. Correct concentration of calcium reduces hazard of occurring heart diseases, stroke, large intestine cancer, and kidney calculus. It is in composition of many enzymes.


Food sources: 
Cheese, cottage cheese, milk, sardine, cress, eggs, cabbage, meat, potato, beet, pod vegetables, nuts.


Nutritional requirements:  
The content of Calcium in food products is expressed in miligrams [mg].


Dietary Reference Intakes for various life stage groups - calcium


Life stage group Calcium
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)*1
[mg /day]
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)*2
[mg /day]
Infants 0-6 months 200*3 1000
Infants 6-12 months 260*3 1500
Children 1-3 years 700 2500
Children 4-8 years 1000 2500
Males 9-13 years 1300 3000
Males 14-18 years 1300 3000
Males 19-30 years 1000 2500
Males 31-50 years 1000 2500
Males 51-70 years 1000 2000
Males > 70 years 1200 2000
Females 9-13 years 1300 3000
Females 14-18 years 1300 3000
Females 19-30 years 1000 2500
Females 31-50 years 1000 2500
Females 51-70 years 1200 2000
Females > 70 years 1200 2000
Pregnancy ≤ 18 years 1300 3000
Pregnancy 19-30 years 1000 2500
Pregnancy 31-50 years 1000 2500
Lactation ≤ 18 years 1300 3000
Lactation 19-30 years 1000 2500
Lactation 31-50 years 1000 2500

*1 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) - the average daily dietary nutrient intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97,5%)) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group..

*2 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) - the highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse effects may increase.

*3 Adequate Intake (AIs) - the recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate-used when an RDA cannot be determined.



Interesting facts:

  • calcium constitutes about 2% of an adult's body mass. 99% of this amount is included in bones and teeth,

  • the level of calcium absorption depends on food composition, fiber content, pH in small intestine (better absorption in acid reaction), speed of chyme moving in intestine, a sort of compound in which calcium occurs and calcium to phosphorus ratio. Very good absorbing conditions occur when calcium is absorbed with protein and lactose, also the presence of vitamin D is important. Absorption is negatively affected by: phytic acid, oxalic acid,

  • appropriate calcium consumption at childhood and maturing period ensures correct ossification and calciumization of skeleton and minimizes the hazard of osteoporosis occurrence at older age.




Chloride

Function of minerals: 
It is the main ingredient of secretions and excrements, is contained in composition of digestive juices in digestive system (gastric juice and saliva), participates in regulation of water balance in organism and acid-base equilibrium.



Food sources: 
Salt, cheese, cured meat products, food produced with soybean content.


Nutritional requirements:  
The content of Chloride in food products is expressed in miligrams [mg] or grams [g].


Dietary Reference Intakes for various life stage groups - chloride


Life stage group Chloride
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)*1
[mg /day]
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)*2
[mg /day]
Infants 0-6 months 0,18*3 Not determinable
Infants 6-12 months 0,57*3 Not determinable
Children 1-3 years 1,5*3 2,3
Children 4-8 years 1,9*3 2,9
Males 9-13 years 2,3*3 3,4
Males 14-18 years 2,3*3 3,6
Males 19-30 years 2,3*3 3,6
Males 31-50 years 2,3*3 3,6
Males 51-70 years 2,0*3 3,6
Males > 70 years 1,8*3 3,6
Females 9-13 years 2,3*3 3,4
Females 14-18 years 2,3*3 3,6
Females 19-30 years 2,3*3 3,6
Females 31-50 years 2,3*3 3,6
Females 51-70 years 2,0*3 3,6
Females > 70 years 1,8*3 3,6
Pregnancy ≤ 18 years 2,3*3 3,6
Pregnancy 19-30 years 2,3*3 3,6
Pregnancy 31-50 years 2,3*3 3,6
Lactation ≤ 18 years 2,3*3 3,6
Lactation 19-30 years 2,3*3 3,6
Lactation 31-50 years 2,3*3 3,6

*1 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) - the average daily dietary nutrient intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97,5%)) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group..

*2 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) - the highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse effects may increase.

*3 Adequate Intake (AIs) - the recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate-used when an RDA cannot be determined.



Interesting facts:

  • in periods of long-lasting sweating, chronic diarrhea, vomiting and during use of diuretics chlorine is lost from organism together with liquids,

  • organism demand for chlorine from food and its losses from organism are similar as in case of sodium that is why the prescriptions for both these elements are the same.




Magnesium

Function of minerals:
It takes part in build of bones and teeth, participates in process of vision, has important role in transferring pieces of information between muscles and nerves, takes part in metabolism, synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins, thermoregulation, lipids metabolism, inhibits blood coagulation, (protects against thrombi in vessels and in heart - protection against infarction), is the activator of some enzymes.


Food sources: 
Soybean flour, barley groats, nuts, buckwheat groats, chocolate, cocoa, pumpkin stones, bean, pea, corn, lentil, spinach, wholewheat flour.


Nutritional requirements:  
The content of Magnesium in food products is expressed in miligrams [mg].


Dietary Reference Intakes for various life stage groups - magnesium


Life stage group Magnesium
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)*1
[mg /day]
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)*2
[mg /day]
Infants 0-6 months 30*3 Not determinable
Infants 6-12 months 75*3 Not determinable
Children 1-3 years 80 65
Children 4-8 years 130 110
Males 9-13 years 240 350
Males 14-18 years 410 350
Males 19-30 years 400 350
Males 31-50 years 420 350
Males 51-70 years 420 350
Males > 70 years 420 350
Females 9-13 years 240 350
Females 14-18 years 360 350
Females 19-30 years 310 350
Females 31-50 years 320 350
Females 51-70 years 320 350
Females > 70 years 320 350
Pregnancy ≤ 18 years 400 350
Pregnancy 19-30 years 350 350
Pregnancy 31-50 years 360 350
Lactation ≤ 18 years 360 350
Lactation 19-30 years 310 350
Lactation 31-50 years 320 350

*1 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) - the average daily dietary nutrient intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97,5%)) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group..

*2 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) - the highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse effects may increase.

*3 Adequate Intake (AIs) - the recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate-used when an RDA cannot be determined.



Interesting facts:

  • magnesium fulfills a regulating role in blood pressure control, by this it affects hypertension. Magnesium deficiency may be a hazardous factor in occurrence of circulatory system diseases and arteriosclerosis,

  • magnesium absorption is bettered by: vitamin D, hormone of parathyroid gland; worsened by: calcium, phosphorus, alcohol, meals rich in proteins, deficiency of vitamins B1 and B6,

  • deficiency of magnesium characterizes with the following symptoms: lack of coordination, tiredness, disorder of heart beat,

  • a chocolate bar provides about 20% of adult's daily demand for magnesium.




Phosphorus

Function of minerals: 
An ingredient of bones, teeth, high-energetic compounds, nucleic acids, kephalin, lecithin, cell membranes and blood. It takes part in build and keep of current state of teeth and bones, in regulation of acid-base equilibrium. It fulfills a very big role in processes of anabolism and catabolism, participates in glucose combustion.


Food sources: 
Dairy products, meat, fish, liver, eggs, cheese, pea, pumpkin stones, bean, potato, whole-wheat cereal products, carrot.


Nutritional requirements:  
The content of Phosphorus in food products is expressed in miligrams [mg].


Dietary Reference Intakes for various life stage groups - phosphorus

Life stage group Phosphorus
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)*1
[mg /day]
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)*2
[g /day]
Infants 0-6 months 100*3 Not determinable
Infants 6-12 months 275*3 Not determinable
Children 1-3 years 460 3
Children 4-8 years 500 3
Males 9-13 years 1250 4
Males 14-18 years 1250 4
Males 19-30 years 700 4
Males 31-50 years 700 4
Males 51-70 years 700 4
Males > 70 years 700 3
Females 9-13 years 1250 4
Females 14-18 years 1250 4
Females 19-30 years 700 4
Females 31-50 years 700 4
Females 51-70 years 700 4
Females > 70 years 700 3
Pregnancy ≤ 18 years 1250 3,5
Pregnancy 19-30 years 700 3,5
Pregnancy 31-50 years 700 3,5
Lactation ≤ 18 years 1250 4
Lactation 19-30 years 700 4
Lactation 31-50 years 700 4

*1 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) - the average daily dietary nutrient intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97,5%)) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group..

*2 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) - the highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse effects may increase.

*3 Adequate Intake (AIs) - the recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate-used when an RDA cannot be determined.



Interesting facts:

  • phosphorus balance in organism is inextricably associated with calcium balance, that is why it is controlled by the same factors as calcium,

  • deficiency of phosphorus rather does not occur. But if it occurs it is a cause of rickets in children and ostheomalacis (bone softening) in adults,

  • the best ratio of consumed calcium to phosphorus is 9:5 what is the equivalent of ratio of these two elements in human's milk. Such ratio for sure safeguards our organism against bone mass loss.




Potassium

Function of minerals: 
Potassium is directly connected with sodium and ensures proper water balance of organism, is the main cation of intracellular liquid, enzyme ingredient, occurs in digestive juices, regulates water balance (cellular volume, intracellular osmotic pressure), affects acid-base equilibrium, ensures appropriate functioning of nerves and muscles, increases permeability of cell membranes (an antagonist of calcium), increases activity of secreting glands.


Food sources: 
Banana, apricot, carrot, potato, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, avocado, date, nuts, spinach.


Nutritional requirements:  
The content of Potassium in food products is expressed in miligrams [mg] or grams [g]. For this mineral Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) has been not determined due to lack of data of adverse effects. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake.


Dietary Reference Intakes for various life stage groups - potassium


Life stage group Potassium
Adequate Intake (AIs)*1
[g / day]
Infants 0-6 months 0,4
Infants 6-12 months 0,7
Children 1-3 years 3,0
Children 4-8 years 3,8
Males 9-13 years 4,5
Males 14-18 years 4,7
Males 19-30 years 4,7
Males 31-50 years 4,7
Males 51-70 years 4,7
Males > 70 years 4,7
Females 9-13 years 4,5
Females 14-18 years 4,7
Females 19-30 years 4,7
Females 31-50 years 4,7
Females 51-70 years 4,7
Females > 70 years 4,7
Pregnancy ≤ 18 years 4,7
Pregnancy 19-30 years 4,7
Pregnancy 31-50 years 4,7
Lactation ≤ 18 years 5,1
Lactation 19-30 years 5,1
Lactation 31-50 years 5,1

*1 Adequate Intake (AIs) - the recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate-used when an RDA cannot be determined.



Interesting facts:

  • potassium takes part in blood pressure regulation (decreasing) and by this it may decrease the hazard of infarction and heart diseases occurrence,

  • it is an antagonist of sodium,

  • it is an essential ingredient in healthy bones keep, it is conducive to proper calcium use and reduces its losses with urine.




Sodium

Function of minerals: 
It is the basic ingredient of structural liquids (digestive juices, blood, lymph, intratissue fluid), takes part in water balance keep in organism and in acid-base equilibrium, has influence on correct functioning of nerves and muscles, is an ingredient of enzymes.


Food sources: 
Salt, food containing salt.


Nutritional requirements:  
The content of Sodium in food products is expressed in miligrams [mg] or grams [g].


Dietary Reference Intakes for various life stage groups - sodium

Life stage group Sodium
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)*1
[g /day]
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)*2
[g /day]
Infants 0-6 months 0,12*3 Not determinable
Infants 6-12 months 0,37*3 Not determinable
Children 1-3 years 1,0 1,5
Children 4-8 years 1,2 1,9
Males 9-13 years 1,5 2,2
Males 14-18 years 1,5 2,3
Males 19-30 years 1,5 2,3
Males 31-50 years 1,5 2,3
Males 51-70 years 1,3 2,3
Males > 70 years 1,2 2,3
Females 9-13 years 1,5 2,2
Females 14-18 years 1,5 2,3
Females 19-30 years 1,5 2,3
Females 31-50 years 1,5 2,3
Females 51-70 years 1,3 2,3
Females > 70 years 1,2 2,3
Pregnancy ≤ 18 years 1,5 2,3
Pregnancy 19-30 years 1,5 2,3
Pregnancy 31-50 years 1,5 2,3
Lactation ≤ 18 years 1,5 2,3
Lactation 19-30 years 1,5 2,3
Lactation 31-50 years 1,5 2,3

*1 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) - the average daily dietary nutrient intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97,5%)) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group..

*2 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) - the highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse effects may increase.

*3 Adequate Intake (AIs) - the recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate-used when an RDA cannot be determined.



Interesting facts:

  • sodium is an antagonist of potassium,

  • sodium occurring in excess bonds water in organism leading to hypertension, swells or even overhydration,

  • in table salt 39% of sodium is contained so a tea-spoon contains 2000 mg of sodium,

  • sometimes in exceptional cases it happens that in a human sodium deficiency occurs. Such examples are marathon participants who lose this element with sweat or these people who overuse laxatives or dehydrants.




Iron

Function of minerals: 
The most relevant ingredient of red dye of blood (hemoglobin), also essential in process of erythrocyte formation in bone marrow, iron bonds carbon dioxide in hemoglobin and transports it to the lungs, where it is removed. This element is also an ingredient of many enzymes and proteins participating in organism metabolism. It takes part in DNA synthesis, is essential to correct build of skin, hair, nails, to appropriate functioning of immunity system.


Food sources: 
Meat, liver, fish, egg yolk, cottage cheese, nuts, milk, pod vegetables, broccoli, spinach, prawn.


Nutritional requirements:  
The content of Iron in food products is expressed in miligrams [mg].


Dietary Reference Intakes for various life stage groups - iron

Life stage group Iron
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)*1
[mg /day]
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)*2
[mg /day]
Infants 0-6 months 0,27*3 40
Infants 6-12 months 11 40
Children 1-3 years 7 40
Children 4-8 years 10 40
Males 9-13 years 8 40
Males 14-18 years 11 45
Males 19-30 years 8 45
Males 31-50 years 8 45
Males 51-70 years 8 45
Males > 70 years 8 45
Females 9-13 years 8 40
Females 14-18 years 15 45
Females 19-30 years 18 45
Females 31-50 years 18 45
Females 51-70 years 8 45
Females > 70 years 8 45
Pregnancy ≤ 18 years 27 45
Pregnancy 19-30 years 27 45
Pregnancy 31-50 years 27 45
Lactation ≤ 18 years 10 45
Lactation 19-30 years 9 45
Lactation 31-50 years 9 45

*1 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) - the average daily dietary nutrient intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97,5%)) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group..

*2 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) - the highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse effects may increase.

*3 Adequate Intake (AIs) - the recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate-used when an RDA cannot be determined.



Interesting facts:

  • iron from animal products is better absorbed and used by organism than iron from plant products,

  • iron deficiency is the most frequently occurring one in the whole world. The most exposed to it are babies, growing children and women in pregnancy and during feeding period,

  • even little iron deficiency may reveal by decrease of fitness and permanently damage psychomotorical actions,

  • in the last 3 months of pregnancy a fetus saves iron reserves in liver, which are 5 times bigger than in adults.




Zinc

Function of minerals: 
It is essential to the synthesis of DNA and RNA, proteins, insulin and sperm, essential for proper functioning of immunity system and for activation of over 80 enzymes. It takes part in metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, proteins and alcohol. It is necessary in protective process against free radicals, of taste and smell feeling, has influence on the appearance of hair and nails.


Food sources: 
Lean meat, skim milk, egg yolk, wholewheat flour, nuts, seafood.


Nutritional requirements:  
The content of Zinc in food products is expressed in miligrams [mg].


Dietary Reference Intakes for various life stage groups - zinc

Life stage group Zinc
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)*1
[mg /day]
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)*2
[mg /day]
Infants 0-6 months 2*3 4
Infants 6-12 months 3 5
Children 1-3 years 3 7
Children 4-8 years 5 12
Males 9-13 years 8 23
Males 14-18 years 11 34
Males 19-30 years 11 40
Males 31-50 years 11 40
Males 51-70 years 11 40
Males > 70 years 11 40
Females 9-13 years 8 23
Females 14-18 years 9 34
Females 19-30 years 8 40
Females 31-50 years 8 40
Females 51-70 years 8 40
Females > 70 years 8 40
Pregnancy ≤ 18 years 12 34
Pregnancy 19-30 years 11 40
Pregnancy 31-50 years 11 40
Lactation ≤ 18 years 13 34
Lactation 19-30 years 12 40
Lactation 31-50 years 12 40

*1 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) - the average daily dietary nutrient intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97,5%)) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group..

*2 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) - the highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse effects may increase.

*3 Adequate Intake (AIs) - the recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate-used when an RDA cannot be determined.



Interesting facts:

  • zinc is connected with functioning of growth hormone and bone protein synthesis,

  • the first symptom of zinc overdose is vomiting,

  • too low zinc supply in childhood causes incorrect growth of young organism, appetite lowering, weakening of hot flavor feeling and immunological reaction of organism,

  • consumption of food rich in zinc does not create danger of its overdose because zinc is not cumulated in tissues and its excess is expelled from organism,

  • phytic acid may cause zinc deficiency, some dishes rich in fiber also may bond zinc in digestive system and disorder its absorption.




Copper

Function of minerals: 
It is essential to proper organism functioning. It takes part in erythrocyte formation, creation of bones and collagen, correct healing of wounds, absorption and transport of iron, metabolism of fatty acids and RNA formation, is an ingredient of some enzymes, fulfills some role in metabolism of central nervous system and dyes.



Food sources: 
Veal, nuts, pod vegetables, cereals, poultry, liver, mussel, fish, buckwheat groats, egg yolk.



Nutritional requirements:  
The content of Copper in food products is expressed in micrograms [µg].


Dietary Reference Intakes for various life stage groups - copper

Life stage group Copper
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)*1
[µg /day]
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)*2
[µg /day]
Infants 0-6 months 200*3 Not determinable
Infants 6-12 months 220*3 Not determinable
Children 1-3 years 340 1000
Children 4-8 years 440 3000
Males 9-13 years 700 5000
Males 14-18 years 890 8000
Males 19-30 years 900 10000
Males 31-50 years 900 10000
Males 51-70 years 900 10000
Males > 70 years 900 10000
Females 9-13 years 700 5000
Females 14-18 years 890 8000
Females 19-30 years 900 10000
Females 31-50 years 900 10000
Females 51-70 years 900 10000
Females > 70 years 900 10000
Pregnancy ≤ 18 years 1000 8000
Pregnancy 19-30 years 1000 10000
Pregnancy 31-50 years 1000 10000
Lactation ≤ 18 years 1300 8000
Lactation 19-30 years 1300 10000
Lactation 31-50 years 1300 10000

*1 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) - the average daily dietary nutrient intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97,5%)) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group..

*2 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) - the highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse effects may increase.

*3 Adequate Intake (AIs) - the recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate-used when an RDA cannot be determined.



Interesting facts:

  • copper enters composition of superoxide dismutase, the enzyme annihilating free radicals (carcinogenic and supporting arteriosclerosis compounds),

  • copper in organism is in 90% bound with protein - ceruloplasmin,

  • if to cook red cabbage, beets a copper pot is used, red dye contained in these vegetables changes the color of a meal into blue.




Manganese

Function of minerals: 
It is an element essential in marginal amounts to correct functioning. It participates in build of enzymes metabolizing glucose and fatty acids, is a structural element of bones and skin. Manganese is very important in processes of reproduction and correct functioning of central nervous system.


Food sources: 
Nuts, tea, wholewheat flour, green vegetables, pea, beet, bean, spinach.


Nutritional requirements:  
The content of Manganese in food products is expressed in miligrams [mg].


Dietary Reference Intakes for various life stage groups - manganese

Life stage group Manganese
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)*1
[mg /day]
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)*2
[mg /day]
Infants 0-6 months 0,003*3 Not determinable
Infants 6-12 months 0,6*3 Not determinable
Children 1-3 years 1,2*3 2
Children 4-8 years 1,5*3 3
Males 9-13 years 1,9*3 6
Males 14-18 years 2,2*3 9
Males 19-30 years 2,3*3 11
Males 31-50 years 2,3*3 11
Males 51-70 years 2,3*3 11
Males > 70 years 2,3*3 11
Females 9-13 years 1,6*3 6
Females 14-18 years 1,6*3 9
Females 19-30 years 1,8*3 11
Females 31-50 years 1,8*3 11
Females 51-70 years 1,8*3 11
Females > 70 years 1,8*3 11
Pregnancy ≤ 18 years 2,0*3 9
Pregnancy 19-30 years 2,0*3 11
Pregnancy 31-50 years 2,0*3 11
Lactation ≤ 18 years 2,6*3 9
Lactation 19-30 years 2,6*3 11
Lactation 31-50 years 2,6*3 11

*1 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) - the average daily dietary nutrient intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97,5%)) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group.

*2 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) - the highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse effects may increase.

*3 Adequate Intake (AIs) - the recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate-used when an RDA cannot be determined.



Interesting facts:

  • sometimes in people overusing preparations containing manganese and in people drinking water with high manganese content it may come to overdose of this element. It leads to dementia, schizophrenia, and deepness of Parkinson's disease,

  • manganese deficiency causes delay in physical growth, skeleton defect forming, decrease of fertility and probably epilepsy.




Molybdenum

Function of minerals: 
It constitutes metaloenzymes composition participating in metabolism of proteins, fats and purines.


Food sources: 
Milk, liver, bean, red cabbage, green parts of vegetables, wholewheat flour, brown (natural) rice, pod vegetables seeds, cheese, meat, haslets.


Nutritional requirements:  
The content of Molybdenum in food products is expressed in micrograms [µg].


Dietary Reference Intakes for various life stage groups - molybdenum

Life stage group Molybdenum
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)*1
[µg /day]
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)*2
[µg /day]
Infants 0-6 months 2*3 Not determinable
Infants 6-12 months 3*3 Not determinable
Children 1-3 years 17 300
Children 4-8 years 22 600
Males 9-13 years 34 1100
Males 14-18 years 43 1700
Males 19-30 years 45 2000
Males 31-50 years 45 2000
Males 51-70 years 45 2000
Males > 70 years 45 2000
Females 9-13 years 34 1100
Females 14-18 years 43 1700
Females 19-30 years 45 2000
Females 31-50 years 45 2000
Females 51-70 years 45 2000
Females > 70 years 45 2000
Pregnancy ≤ 18 years 50 1700
Pregnancy 19-30 years 50 2000
Pregnancy 31-50 years 50 2000
Lactation ≤ 18 years 50 1700
Lactation 19-30 years 50 2000
Lactation 31-50 years 50 2000

*1 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) - the average daily dietary nutrient intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97,5%)) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group..

*2 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) - the highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse effects may increase.

*3 Adequate Intake (AIs) - the recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate-used when an RDA cannot be determined.



Interesting facts:

  • the highest molybdenum concentration in human's organism has been claimed in liver, kidneys, osseous tissue and teeth,

  • its excess causes formation of urine defect, aches and swells of joints.




Iodine

Function of minerals:
It is essential to correct thyroid gland functioning (it belongs to thyroid gland hormones, which take part in control of primary life functions: they control temperature, nervous system, muscle system, cell division what affects metabolism pace in organism), prevents goiter formation.


Food sources: 
Iodizing salt, sea fish, seafood, yeast, fucus, onion.


Nutritional requirements:  
The content of Iodine in food products is expressed in micrograms [µg].


Dietary Reference Intakes for various life stage groups - iodine

Life stage group Iodine
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)*1
[µg /day]
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)*2
[µg /day]
Infants 0-6 months 110*3 Not determinable
Infants 6-12 months 130*3 Not determinable
Children 1-3 years 90 200
Children 4-8 years 90 300
Males 9-13 years 120 600
Males 14-18 years 150 900
Males 19-30 years 150 1100
Males 31-50 years 150 1100
Males 51-70 years 150 1100
Males > 70 years 150 1100
Females 9-13 years 120 600
Females 14-18 years 150 900
Females 19-30 years 150 1100
Females 31-50 years 150 1100
Females 51-70 years 150 1100
Females > 70 years 150 1100
Pregnancy ≤ 18 years 220 900
Pregnancy 19-30 years 220 1100
Pregnancy 31-50 years 220 1100
Lactation ≤ 18 years 290 900
Lactation 19-30 years 290 1100
Lactation 31-50 years 290 1100

*1 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) - the average daily dietary nutrient intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97,5%)) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group..

*2 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) - the highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse effects may increase.

*3 Adequate Intake (AIs) - the recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate-used when an RDA cannot be determined.



Interesting facts:

  • iodine deficiency is one of the most common nutrients deficiencies in the world. Salt enriched with iodine is used in the purpose of insurance of proper consumption of this element,

  • long-lasting consumption of plants from cabbage family, which are especially cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts and soybean combined with simultaneous little iodine content in a diet may be a reason of iodine deficiency existence. Goitergenic factors are also contained in turnip and rutabaga. First of all it concerns fresh vegetables because cooking decreases the content of these disadvantageous of over 30%,

  • iodine is well absorbed by digestive system, mucous membranes of respiratory organ and skin.




Fluoride

Function of minerals: 
It is an ingredient of bones and teeth, strengthens enamel, dentine, prevents tooth decay, decreases dentine solubility. In adults it also fulfills an important role in proper skeleton performance. It has an influence on calcium and phosphorus balance. During pregnancy it helps in iron absorption and prevents anemia.


Food sources: 
Sea fish and seafood, black tea, walnut, liver, soybean, milk, pod vegetables, mineral water.



Nutritional requirements:  
The content of Fluoride in food products is expressed in miligrams [mg].


Dietary Reference Intakes for various life stage groups - fluoride

Life stage group Fluoride
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)*1
[mg /day]
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)*2
[mg /day]
Infants 0-6 months 0,01*3 0,7
Infants 6-12 months 0,5*3 0,9
Children 1-3 years 0,7*3 1,3
Children 4-8 years 1*3 2,2
Males 9-13 years 2*3 10
Males 14-18 years 3*3 10
Males 19-30 years 4*3 10
Males 31-50 years 4*3 10
Males 51-70 years 4*3 10
Males > 70 years 4*3 10
Females 9-13 years 2*3 10
Females 14-18 years 3*3 10
Females 19-30 years 3*3 10
Females 31-50 years 3*3 10
Females 51-70 years 3*3 10
Females > 70 years 3*3 10
Pregnancy ≤ 18 years 3*3 10
Pregnancy 19-30 years 3*3 10
Pregnancy 31-50 years 3*3 10
Lactation ≤ 18 years 3*3 10
Lactation 19-30 years 3*3 10
Lactation 31-50 years 3*3 10

*1 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) - the average daily dietary nutrient intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97,5%)) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group..

*2 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) - the highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse effects may increase.

*3 Adequate Intake (AIs) - the recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate-used when an RDA cannot be determined.



Interesting facts:

  • fluorine deficiency causes decalciumization of bones, it may also happen when there is too much of calcium,

  • fluorine excess causes tooth condition, awfully decoloring and weakening enamel, it also results in metabolism disorder,

  • fluorine deficiency leads to tooth decay.




Chromium

Function of minerals:
The element regulating level of cholesterol and fatty acids. It participates in making cells sensitive to insulin (flattening of glycemic curve) and protein digestion.


Food sources: 
Nuts, wholewheat flour, liver, fungus, pod vegetables, asparagus, broccoli.


Nutritional requirements:  
The content of Chromium in food products is expressed in micrograms [µg]. For this mineral Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) has been not determined due to lack of data of adverse effects. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake.


Dietary Reference Intakes for various life stage groups - chromium

Life stage group Chromium
Adequate Intake (AIs)*1
[µg / day]
Infants 0-6 months 0,2
Infants 6-12 months 5,5
Children 1-3 years 11
Children 4-8 years 15
Males 9-13 years 25
Males 14-18 years 35
Males 19-30 years 35
Males 31-50 years 35
Males 51-70 years 30
Males > 70 years 30
Females 9-13 years 21
Females 14-18 years 24
Females 19-30 years 25
Females 31-50 years 25
Females 51-70 years 20
Females > 70 years 20
Pregnancy ≤ 18 years 29
Pregnancy 19-30 years 30
Pregnancy 31-50 years 30
Lactation ≤ 18 years 44
Lactation 19-30 years 45
Lactation 31-50 years 45

*1 Adequate Intake (AIs) - the recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate-used when an RDA cannot be determined.



Interesting facts:

  • chromium deficiency causes increase of cholesterol and fatty acids level in blood, insufficient glucose metabolism, in high deficiency damage of nerves,

  • excessive chromium accumulation in organism or its consumption in high doses may disorder insulin action or stimulate cancer occurrence,

  • the common name of chromium was derived from the Greek, chroma, which means "color", because the element is present in many different colored compounds long used as pigments in the dyeing and tanning of leather

  • its role in sugar transformation also affects decrease of hunger, that is why it is also used in weight losing support.




Selenium

Function of minerals:
It is a minor element acting directly in connection with vitamin E. it takes part in elimination of free radicals and heavy metals such as arsenic, cadmium, silver, mercury, participates in transformation of thyroid gland hormones.


Food sources: 
Seafood, meat, corn, wholewheat flour, pod vegetables.


Nutritional requirements:  
The content of Selenium in food products is expressed in micrograms [µg].


Dietary Reference Intakes for various life stage groups - selenium

Life stage group Selenium
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)*1
[µg /day]
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)*2
[µg /day]
Infants 0-6 months 15*3 45
Infants 6-12 months 20*3 60
Children 1-3 years 20 90
Children 4-8 years 30 150
Males 9-13 years 40 280
Males 14-18 years 55 400
Males 19-30 years 55 400
Males 31-50 years 55 400
Males 51-70 years 55 400
Males > 70 years 55 400
Females 9-13 years 40 280
Females 14-18 years 55 400
Females 19-30 years 55 400
Females 31-50 years 55 400
Females 51-70 years 55 400
Females > 70 years 55 400
Pregnancy ≤ 18 years 60 400
Pregnancy 19-30 years 60 400
Pregnancy 31-50 years 60 400
Lactation ≤ 18 years 70 400
Lactation 19-30 years 70 400
Lactation 31-50 years 70 400

*1 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) - the average daily dietary nutrient intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97,5%)) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group..

*2 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) - the highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse effects may increase.

*3 Adequate Intake (AIs) - the recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate-used when an RDA cannot be determined.



Interesting facts:

  • too low selenium level in a diet may reveal as muscle weakening,

  • selenium content in soil determines its content in food,

  • selenium interacts with vitamin E and allows its digestion and absorption, while vitamin E stores selenium reserves in active form and prevents it losses from organism what fulfills an important role in arteriosclerosis prophylactics,

  • selenium connected with vitamin E may improve life activity and increase older people's vigor.




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