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Food additives (e numbers)


20.06.2014
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Food additives (e numbers)


   Additional substances - "food additives" are substances added to foods by producers to prevent spoilage or to improve appearance, taste, texture, or nutritive value. Food additives may directly or indirectly become food ingredients or in other way affect its characteristic features.



Role in food of food additives

   Some food additives have more than one use. Food additives are listed according to their roles. Examples of the most common roles are:



Colors add or restore color to foods, keep or intensify the color of food.
Preservatives help protect against deteriorations caused by microorganisms.
Sweeteners are substances which give a sweet taste for fewer kilojoules or calories than sugar.
Flavor enhancers improve the flavor and/or aroma of food.
Anti-caking agents keep powdered products such as salt, flowing freely when poured.
Emulsifiers help to prevent oil and water mixtures from separating into layers.
Acidity regulators help maintain a constant sourness in food.
Humectants prevent foods such as dried fruit from drying out.
Thickeners and vegetable gums improve texture and maintain uniform consistency.
Stabilisers maintain the uniform dispersion of substances in a food.
Glazing agents give a shiny appearance or provide a protective coating to a food.
Propellants are gases which help propel food from a container.



Functions of food additives

→ maintain product consistency. Emulsifiers provide a consistent texture and prevent products from separating. Stabilizers and thickeners provide a uniform texture. Anticaking agents enable substances to flow freely.
→ improve or preserve the nutrient value. Fortification and enrichment of foods has made it possible to improve the nutritional status of population. For example, vitamins and minerals are added to many foods including flour, cereal, margarine, and milk. This helps to make up for vitamins or minerals that may be low or lacking in an individual’s diet.
→ maintain the wholesomeness and the palatability of foods. Contamination from bacteria can allow food-borne illnesses to occur. Preservatives reduce the spoilage that air, fungi, bacteria, or yeast can cause. Preservatives such as antioxidants help baked goods preserve their flavor by preventing the fats and oils from becoming rancid. They also keep fresh fruits from turning brown when exposed to the air.
→ control the acidity and alkalinity, and to provide leavening. Specific additives aid to adjustment of the acidity or alkalinity of foods to gain a wished taste, color, or flavor. Leavening agents that release acids when they are heated react with baking soda to help biscuits, cakes, and other baked goods rise.
→ provide color and improve flavor. Certain colors improve appearance of foods. There are many spices and natural and synthetic flavors that bring out the best in the flavor of food.



International Numbering System (INS) for food additives

   INS system for food additives is a european-based naming system for food additives, aimed at providing a short designation of what may be a lengthy actual name. It is defined by Codex Alimentarius, the international food standards organisation of the World Health Organisation (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. The information is published in the document, Class Names and the International Numbering System for Food Additives, first published in 1989, with revisions in 2008 and 2011. The INS is an open list, "subject to the inclusion of additional additives or removal of existing ones on an ongoing basis". The International Numbering System numbers (INS) consist of three or four digits, optionally followed by an alphabetical suffix to further characterize individual additives. On packaging in the European Union, approved food additives are written with a prefix of 'E'. In Australia and New Zealand the numbers are the same as in Europe, but without the prefix "E". E-numbers are also encountered on food labelling in other jurisdictions, including the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, Australia, New Zealand and Israel. They are increasingly, though still rarely, found on North American packaging, especially in Canada on imported European products. An additive that appears in the INS does not automatically have a corresponding e-number. Except where stated, the list of INS numbers and associated food additives is based on the most recent publication of the Codex Alimentarius, E-number and American approval flags are derived from other sources. In some European countries, "e-number" is sometimes used informally as a pejorative term for artificial food additives, and products may promote themselves as "free of e-numbers".



How are food additives regulated ?

   In Europe food additives are authorised at EU level for all the member states, as well as for Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. All additives in the EU must be authorised and listed with conditions of use in the EU's 'positive' list based on: a safety assessment, the technological need and ensuring that use of the additive will not mislead consumers.
  
   In the United States, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates food additives under the authority of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 and amendments in 1958 and 1960. These amendments include the “Delaney Clause” which bans the approval of an additive if it is shown to cause cancer in humans or animals. Before using a new food or color additive, a manufacturer must petition the FDA for approval. As part of the petition, the manufacturer must prove the additive does what it is intended to do, and is not harmful to humans at the expected consumption.

   The FDA decides, based on the best scientific data available, if the additive is safe under the proposed conditions of use. If the FDA approves an additive, it issues regulations that may include: the types of foods the additive can be used in, the maximum amounts to be used, and the labeling needs. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) must also approve additives that are proposed for use in meat and poultry products. After approving a new additive, government officials watch consumption and keep track of any new research on its safety. The FDA also runs an “Adverse Reaction Monitoring System (ARS)” to examine complaints from consumers, doctors, or food companies about food additives. The ARS database helps officials track complaints and decide if a reported adverse reaction represents a real public health hazard associated with food.

   There are two categories of food additives that are not subject to the testing and approval procedure, “prior sanctioned” and “GRAS” substances. Substances appointed as prior sanctioned were approved by the FDA before the 1958 Food Additives Amendment. GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) additives have been extensively used in the past with no known harmful effect and are believed to be safe. Substances on the GRAS list have been under review since 1969 to insure their safety.

   In Australia and New Zealand, the use of food additives in foods is regulated by the Food Standards Code and enforced under state and territory food laws. The Australia New Zealand Food Authority (ANZFA) is responsible for developing of, or variation to, food standards in the Food Standards Code. The Australia New Zealand Food Standards Council (ANZFSC), made up of State, Territory, Commonwealth and New Zealand Health Ministers, makes the final decision. ANZFA only allows additives if it can be shown that no harmful effects are expected to result. This involves their scientists evaluating the data gained from extensive testing of the additive. A decision on food additive safety is based on the acceptable daily intake (ADI), which is amount of a food additive that can be eaten every day for an entire lifetime without adverse effect.



List of food additives

E-number Name Additional information and remarks
E100-E199 - Colors
E100 Curcumin Yellow-orange color; stemmed from the root of the curcuma (turmeric) plant, but can be artificially produced; used in cheese, margarine, baked sweets and fish fingers. Approved in the EU and in the US.
E101
E101a
Riboflavin,
Riboflavin-5'-phosphate
Yellow-orange color; "vitamin B2" and color; occurs naturally in green vegetables, eggs, milk, liver and kidney; used in margarine and cheese. E101 approved in the EU and in the US, E101a approved in the EU.
E102 Tartrazine Lemon yellow color; known to provoke asthma attacks (though the US FDA do not recognize this) and urticaria (nettle rash) in children (the US FDA estimates 1:10 000); also linked to thyroid tumors, chromosomal damage, urticaria (hives) and hyperactivity; tartrazine sensitivity is also linked to aspirin sensitivity; used to color drinks, sweets, jams, cereals, snack foods, canned fish, packaged soups. Approved in the EU.
E103 Alkannin Red-brown color.
E104 Quinoline yellow Dull or greenish yellow color; used in lipsticks hair products, colognes; also in a wide range of medications; cause dermatitis. Approved in the EU, undergoing a voluntary phase-out in the UK.
E105 Fast yellow AB Yellow color.
E106 Riboflavin-5-sodium phosphate Yellow color.
E107 Yellow 7G Yellow color; the HACSG recommends to avoid it; people who suffer Asthma may also show an allergic reaction to it; typical products are soft drinks. Banned in Australia and US.
E110 Sunset yellow FCF, Orange yellow S Yellow-orange color; used in cereals, bakery, sweets, snack foods, ice cream, drinks and canned fish; synthetic; also in many medications including Berocca, Polaramine, Ventolin syrup; side effects are urticaria (hives), rhinitis (runny nose), nasal congestion, allergies, hyperactivity, kidney tumors, chromosomal damage, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, indigestion, distaste for food; seen increased incidence of tumors in animals. Banned in Norway, approved in the EU and in the US, products in the EU require warnings and its use is being phased-out.
E111 Orange GGN Orange color.
E120 Cochineal, Carminic acid, Carmines Crimson color; made from insects; rarely used; the HASCG recommends to avoid it. Approved in the EU and in the US.
E121 Citrus red 2 Dark red color. Approved in the US only for use in colouring the skin of oranges.
E122 Azorubine, Carmoisine Red to maroon color; coal tar derivative; can produce bad reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin; typical products are confectionery, marzipan, jelly crystals. Approved in the EU, undergoing a voluntary phase-out in the UK. Currently banned in Canada, Japan, Norway, US, EU currently evaluating health risks.
E123 Amaranth Dark red color; stemmed from the small herbaceous plant of the same name; used in cake mixes, fruit-flavored fillings, jelly crystals; can provoke asthma, eczema and hyperactivity; it caused birth defects and foetal deaths in some animal tests, possibly also cancer. Approved in the EU.
E124 Ponceau 4R, Cochineal red A, Brilliant scarlet 4R Red color; synthetic coal tar and azo dye, carcinogen in animals, can produce bad reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin. Approved in the EU.
E125 Ponceau SX, Scarlet GN Red color. Only permitted for externally applied drugs and cosmetics in the US.
E126 Ponceau 6R Red color.
E127 Erythrosine Red color; used in cherries, canned fruit, custard mix, sweets, bakery, snack foods; can cause sensitivity to light; can increase thyroid hormone levels and lead to hyperthyroidism, was shown to cause thyroid cancer in rats in a study in 1990. Approved in the EU and in the US.
E128 Red 2G Red color.
E129 Allura red AC Red color; used in sweets, drinks and condiments, medications and cosmetics, synthetic; introduced in the early eighties to replace amaranth which was considered not safe because of conflicting test results; allura red has also been connected with cancer in mice. Approved in the EU. Banned in Switzerland. Undergoing a voluntary phase out in the UK. Approved in the US.
E130 Indanthrene blue RS Blue color.
E131 Patent blue V Dark blue color. Approved in the EU.
E132 Indigotine, Indigo carmine Indigo color; commonly added to tablets and capsules; also used in ice cream, sweets, baked goods, confectionery, biscuits, synthetic coal tar derivative; may cause nausea, vomiting, high blood pressure, skin rashes, breathing problems and other allergic reactions. Approved in the EU and in the US.
E133 Brilliant blue FCF Reddish blue color; used in dairy products, sweets and drinks, synthetic usually occurring as aluminum lake (solution) or ammonium salt. Approved in the EU and in the US.
E140 Chlorophyll, Chlorophyllins Green color; occurs naturally in all plants; used for dyeing waxes and oils, used in medicines and cosmetics. Approved in the EU.
E141 Copper complexes of chlorophyll and chlorophyllins Olive color, no adverse effects are known. Approved in the EU and in the US.
E142 Green S Green color; synthetic coal tar derivative; used in canned peas, mint jelly and sauce, packet bread crumbs and cake mixes. Approved in the EU.
E143 Fast green FCF (FD&C Green 3) Sea green color. Approved in the US. Banned in the EU.
E150a Plain caramel Dark brown color; made from sucrose; the HACSG recommends to avoid it. used in oyster, soy, fruit and canned sauces, beer, whiskey, biscuits, pickles. Approved in the EU and in the US.
E150b Caustic sulphite caramel See E150a. Approved in the EU and in the US.
E150c Ammonia caramel See E150a. Approved in the EU and in the US.
E150d Sulphite ammonia caramel See E150a. Approved in the US.
E151 Brilliant black BN, Black PN Black color; coal tar derivative; used in brown sauces, blackcurrant cake mixes. Approved in the US.
E152 Carbon black (hydrocarbon) Black color.
E153 Vegetable carbon Black color; charcoal pigment; used in jams, jelly crystals, liquorice. Approved in the EU.
E154 Brown FK Brown color. Approved in the EU for dyeing kippers only, however appears to no longer be used.
E155 Brown HT (Chocolate) Brown color; coal tar and azo dye; used in chocolate cake mixes; can produce bad reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin; also known to induce skin sensitivity. Approved in the EU.
E160a Alpha-carotene, Beta-carotene, Gamma-carotene Yellow-orange to brown; human body converts it to 'Vitamin A' in the liver, found in carrots and other yellow or orange fruits and vegetables. Approved in the EU.
E160b Annatto, bixin, norbixin Orange color; stemmed from a tree (Bixa orellana); used as a body paint, fabric dye, digestive aid and expectorant; used to dye cheese, butter, margarine, cereals, snack foods, soaps, textiles and varnishes; known to cause urticaria (nettle rash), the HACSG recommends to avoid it. Approved in the EU and in the US.
E160c Paprika oleoresin, Capsanthin, capsorubin Red color. Approved in the EU and in the US.
E160d Lycopene Bright to deep red color; carotenoid found in tomatoes and pink grapefruit, can cause decreasing risk of cancer. Approved in the EU and in the US.
E160e Beta-apo-8'-carotenal (C 30) Orange-red to yellow color; no adverse effects are known. Approved in the EU and in the US.
E160f Ethyl ester of beta-apo-8'- carotenic acid (C 30) Orange-red to yellow color; no adverse effects are known. Approved in the EU.
E161a Flavoxanthin Golden-yellow and brownish color.
E161b Lutein Orange-red to yellow color; stemmed from plants, naturally found in green leaves, marigolds and egg yolks. Approved in the EU.
E161c Cryptoxanthin Orange-red color.
E161d Rubixanthin Orange-red color.
E161e Violaxanthin Orange color.
E161f Rubixanthin Purple color.
E161g Canthaxanthin Violet color; the pigment is found in some mushrooms, crustacea, fish, flamingo feathers; in January 2003, the European Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health voted to reduce the permitted levels of canthaxanthin in animal feeds due to the health risk to human consumers of the animal products; canthaxanthin pigment has been found to accumulate on the retina, having a detrimental effect on eyesight. Approved in the EU and in the US.
E161h Zeaxanthin Orange-red color.
E161i Citranaxanthin Deep violet color.
E161j Astaxanthin Red color.
E162 Beetroot Red, Betanin Red color; stemmed from beets; no adverse effects are known. Approved in the EU.
E163 Anthocyanins pH dependent (Red, green and purple ranges color) matter of flowers and plants; seems safe. Approved in the EU.
E164 Saffron Orange-red color. Approved in the US.
E170 Calcium carbonate White color; mineral salt, used in toothpastes, white paint and cleaning powders; may be stemmed from rock mineral or animal bones; sometimes used to deacidify wines and firm canned fruit and veg.; toxic at "high doses". Approved in the EU.
E171 Titanium dioxide White color; used in toothpaste and white paint, pollutes waterways; no adverse effects are known. Approved in the EU and in the US.
E172 Iron oxides and hydroxides Brown color; toxic at "high doses". Approved in the EU. Approved in the US for sausage casings.
E173 Aluminium Silver to grey color. Approved in the EU.
E174 Silver Silver color. Approved in the EU.
E175 Gold Gold color. Approved in the EU.
E180 Pigment Rubine, Lithol Rubine BK Red color. Approved in the EU.
E181 Tannin Brown color; clarifying agent in alcohol; stemmed from the nutgalls and twigs of oak trees; occurs naturally in tea
E182 Orcein, Orchil Purple color.
E200-E299 - Preservatives
E200 Sorbic acid Either obtained from berries or synthesized from ketene; possible skin irritant. Approved in the EU.
E201 Sodium sorbate No known adverse effects.
E202 Potassium sorbate No known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E203 Calcium sorbate No known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E209 Heptyl p-hydroxybenzoate  
E210 Benzoic acid Also known as flowers of benzoin, phenlycarboxylic acid, carboxybenzene; added to alcoholic beverages, baked goods, cheeses, gum, condiments, frozen dairy, relishes, soft sweets, cordials and sugar substitutes; used in cosmetics, as an antiseptic in many cough medications and an antifungal in ointments; can cause asthma, especially in those dependents on steroid asthma medications, is also reputed to cause neurological disorders and to react with sulphur bisulphite (222), shown to provoke hyperactivity in children; obtained from Benzoin, a resin exuded by trees native to Asia. Approved in the EU.
E211 Sodium benzoate Used as antiseptic, as a food preservative and to disguise taste, as of poor-quality food; orange soft drinks contain a high amount of it, up to 25mg per 250ml; also in milk and meat products, relishes and condiments, baked goods and lollipops; used in many oral medications including Actifed, Phenergan and Tylenol; known to causes nettle rash and aggravate asthma. Approved in the EU.
E212 Potassium benzoate People with a history of allergies may show allergic reactions. Approved in the EU.
E213 Calcium benzoate Approved in the EU.
E214 Ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate Approved in the EU.
E215 Sodium ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate Approved in the EU.
E216 Propyl p-hydroxybenzoate Possible contact allergen.
E217 Sodium propyl p-hydroxybenzoate  
E218 Methylparaben (Methyl p-hydroxybenzoate) Allergic reactions possible, mainly effecting the skin. Approved in the EU.
E219 Sodium methyl p-hydroxybenzoate Approved in the EU.
E220 Sulphur dioxide Stemmed from coal tar; all sulphur drugs are toxic and restricted in use (in USA, FDA prohibits their use on raw fruits and vegetables), produced by combustion of sulphur or gypsum; known to provoke asthma attacks and difficult to metabolize for those with impaired kidney function, also destroys vitamin B1; typical products are beer, soft drinks, dried fruit, juices, cordials, wine, vinegar, potato products. Approved in the EU.
E221 Sodium sulphite Decontaminating agent used in fresh orange juice. Approved in the EU.
E222 Sodium hydrogen sulphite Approved in the EU.
E223 Sodium metabisulphite Approved in the EU.
E224 Potassium metabisulphite Approved in the EU.
E225 Potassium sulphite  
E226 Calcium sulphite Approved in the EU.
E227 Calcium hydrogen sulphite Approved in the EU.
E228 Potassium hydrogen sulphite Approved in the EU.
E230 Biphenyl, Diphenyl Can be used for agricultural purposes; typical products are citrus fruit. Approved in the EU.
E231 Orthophenyl phenol Can be used for agricultural purposes; typical products are pears, carrots, peaches, plums, prunes, sweet potato, citrus fruit, pineapples, tomatoes, peppers, cherries, nectarines. Approved in the EU.
E232 Sodium orthophenyl phenol Approved in the EU.
E233 Thiabendazole Can be used for agricultural purposes, typical products are citrus fruits, apples, pears, potatoes, bananas, mushrooms, meat, milk.
E234 Nisin Antibiotic stemmed from bacteria; found in beer, processed cheese products, tomato paste. Approved in the EU.
E235 Natamycin Mould inhibitor stemmed from bacteria; sometimes used medically to treat candidiasis; can cause nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea and skin irritation; typical products are meat, cheese. Approved in the EU.
E236 Formic acid  
E237 Sodium formate  
E238 Calcium formate  
E239 Hexamine (hexamethylene tetramine) Approved in the EU.
E240 Formaldehyde  
E242 Dimethyl dicarbonate An antimicrobial that is added to juices and acts on microbes contained in the juice, it is also listed as an approved food-contact substance on the FDA inventory for use in non-carbonated juice beverages. Approved in the EU.
E249 Potassium nitrite Color fixative and curing agent for meat; nitrites can effect the body's ability to carry oxygen, resulting in shortness of breath, dizziness and headaches; potential carcinogen; not permitted in foods for infant and young children. Approved in the EU.
E250 Sodium nitrite May provoke hyperactivity and other adverse reactions, potentially carcinogenic, restricted in many countries, can combine with chemicals in stomach to form nitrosamine, the HACSG recommends to avoid it. Approved in the EU.
E251 Sodium nitrate Also used in the manufacture of nitric acid, as a fertilizer and in fermented meat products. Approved in the EU.
E252 Potassium nitrate May be stemmed from waste animal or vegetable matter; used in gunpowder, explosives and fertilizers, and in the preservation of meat; may provoke hyperactivity and other adverse reactions; potentially carcinogenic; restricted in many countries. Approved in the EU.
E260 Acetic acid Acidity regulator; main component of vinegar, synthetically produced from wood fibres; used in pickles, chutneys, and sauces. Approved in the EU.
E261 Potassium acetate Acidity regulator; should be avoided by people with impaired kidney function; typical products are sauces, pickles. Approved in the EU.
E262 Sodium acetate, Sodium diacetate Acidity regulator, preservative; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E263 Calcium acetate Acidity regulator; by product in the manufacture of wood alcohol; used to make acetic acid (vinegar) and in the production of dyers mordants. Approved in the EU.
E264 Ammonium acetate Can cause nausea and vomiting
E265 Dehydroacetic acid  
E266 Sodium dehydroacetate  
E270 Lactic acid Antioxidant; produced by heating and fermenting carbohydrates in milk whey, potatoes, cornstarch or molasses; difficult for babies to metabolize; used in sweets, dressings, soft drinks (sometimes beer) infant formulas and confectionery. Approved in the EU.
E280 Propionic acid All propionates are thought to be linked with migraine headaches; propionates occur naturally in fermented foods, human perspiration and ruminants digestive tract, also can be stemmed commercially from ethylene and carbon monoxide or propionaldehyde or natural gas or fermented wood pulp; produced when bacteria decompose fibre; commonly used in bread and flour products. Approved in the EU.
E281 Sodium propionate May be linked to migraines, typical products are flour products. Approved in the EU.
E282 Calcium propionate Approved in the EU.
E283 Potassium propionate Approved in the EU.
E290 Carbon dioxide Acidity regulator; stemmed from lime manufacture; may increase the effect of alcohol; typical products are wine, soft drinks, confectionery. Approved in the EU.
E296 Malic acid Acidity regulator; stemmed from fruit or synthetic; infants and young children should avoid it. Approved in the EU.
E297 Fumaric acid Acidity regulator; stemmed from plants of the genus Fumaria esp. F.officianalis or from the fermentation of glucose with fungi; flavor, acidify, as an antioxidant or raising agent used in soft drinks and cake mixes. Approved in the EU.
E300-E399 - Antioxidants, acidity regulators
E300 Ascorbic acid Antioxidant; "vitamin C"; may be made synthetically from glucose, naturally occurs in fruit and vegetables; added to products as diverse as cured meat, breakfast cereals, frozen fish and wine. Approved in the EU.
E301 Sodium ascorbate Antioxidant; sodium salt of vitamin C. Approved in the EU.
E302 Calcium ascorbate Antioxidant; vitamin C, may increase the formation of calcium oxalate stones. Approved in the EU.
E303 Potassium ascorbate Antioxidant; potassium salt of vitamin C.
E304 Ascorbyl palmitate, Ascorbyl stearate Antioxidant; fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, same function as E300. Approved in the EU.
E306, 
E307,
E308, 
E309
Tocopherols, alpha-,gamma-,delta- Antioxidant; "vitamin E"; found in many oils vegetable, including soy, wheat germ, rice germ, cottonseed, maize; works as an antioxidant for fatty acids and tissue fats, preventing vitamin A from oxidation; used in margarine and salad dressings. Approved in the EU.
E310 Propyl gallate Antioxidant; used to prevent rancidity in oily substances; stemmed from nutgalls; may cause gastric or skin irritation, gallates are not permitted in foods for infants and small children because of their known tendency to cause the blood disorder, methemoglobinemia; used in oils, margarine, lard and salad dressings, sometimes used in packaging. Approved in the EU.
E311 Octyl gallate Antioxidant. Approved in the EU.
E312 Dodecyl gallate Antioxidant. Approved in the EU.
E313 Ethyl gallate Antioxidant.
E314 Guaiac resin Antioxidant.
E315 Erythorbic acid Antioxidant. Approved in the EU.
E316 Sodium erythorbate Antioxidant. Approved in the EU.
E 317 Erythorbin acid Antioxidant; produced from sucrose.
E 318 Sodium erythorbin Antioxidant; produced from E317.
E319 tert-Butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) Antioxidant. Approved in the EU.
E320 Butylated hydroxy-anisole (BHA) Antioxidant; petroleum derivative, retards spoilage because of oxidation; used in edible oils, chewing gum, fats, margarine, nuts, instant potato products, polyethylene food wraps; not permitted in infant foods, can provoke an allergic reaction in some people, may trigger hyperactivity and other intolerance; serious concerns over carcinogenicity and estrogenic effects, in large doses caused tumors in lab animals, banned in Japan in 1958, official committees of experts recommended that it be banned in the UK, however because of industry pressure it was not banned, McDonald's eliminated BHT from their US products by 1986. Approved in the EU.
E321 Butylated hydroxy-toluene (BHT) Antioxidant; petroleum derivative; see E320. Approved in the EU.
E322 Lecithin Emulsifier; emulsifier stemmed from soy beans, egg yolks, peanuts, corn or animal resources; non toxic but overdose can upset the stomach, kill the appetite and cause profuse sweating; used to allow combination of oils in margarine, chocolate, mayonnaise, milk powder; must be chosen vegetable type. Approved in the EU.
E323 Anoxomer Antioxidant.
E324 Ethoxyquin Antioxidant.
E325 Sodium lactate Acidity regulator; stemmed from milk (lactic acid); may contain pork rennin or whey in process, young children with lactose intolerance may show adverse reactions. Approved in the EU.
E326 Potassium lactate Acidity regulator; see 325. Approved in the EU.
E327 Calcium lactate Acidity regulator; see 325. Approved in the EU.
E328 Ammonium lactate Acidity regulator; see 325.
E329 Magnesium lactate Acidity regulator; see 325.
E330 Citric acid Acidity regulator; food acid, naturally stemmed from citrus fruit, used in biscuits, canned fish, cheese and processed cheese products, infant formulas, cake and soup mixes, rye bread, soft drinks, fermented meat products. Approved in the EU.
E331 Sodium citrates Acidity regulator; food acid; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E332 Potassium citrates Acidity regulator; food acid; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E333 Calcium citrates Acidity regulator; food acid; no known adverse effects in small quantities. Approved in the EU.
E334 Tartaric acid Acidity regulator; food acid, obtained from unripe fruit, grape juice; no known adverse effects in small quantities. Approved in the EU.
E335 Sodium tartrates Acidity regulator; food acid; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E336 Potassium tartrates Acidity regulator; food acid; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E337 Sodium potassium tartrate Acidity regulator; food acid; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E338 Orthophosphoric acid Acidity regulator; food acid, stemmed from phosphate ore; used in cheese products; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E339 Sodium phosphates Antioxidant; mineral salt, used as a laxative and a fixing agent in textile dyeing; high intakes may upset the calcium/phosphorus equilibrium. Approved in the EU.
E340 Potassium phosphates Antioxidant; see 339. Approved in the EU.
E341 Calcium phosphates Anti-caking agent, firming agent; mineral salt found in rocks and bones; used in medicines as an antacid and polishing agent in enamels. Approved in the EU.
E342 Ammonium phosphates  
E343 Magnesium phosphates Anti-caking agent; essential mineral, anti caking agent found in salt substitutes. Approved in the EU. This additive is under discussion and may be included in a future amendment to the Directive on miscellaneous additives.
E344 Lecitin citrate Acidity regulator.
E345 Magnesium citrate Acidity regulator.
E349 Ammonium malate Acidity regulator.
E350 Sodium malates Acidity regulator; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E351 Potassium malate Acidity regulator; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E352 Calcium malates Acidity regulator; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E353 Metatartaric acid Emulsifier; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E354 Calcium tartrate Emulsifier; seems safe. Approved in the EU.
E355 Adipic acid Acidity regulator; food acid from the root adipose. Approved in the EU.
E357 Potassium adipate Acidity regulator; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E359 Ammonium adipate Acidity regulator.
E363 Succinic acid Acidity regulator. Approved in the EU.
E365 Sodium fumarate Acidity regulator; food acid, salt of fumaric acid (stemmed from plants of the genus Fumaria esp. F.officianalis).
E366 Potassium fumarate Acidity regulator; no known adverse effects.
E367 Calcium fumarate Acidity regulator; no known adverse effects.
E368 Ammonium fumarate Acidity regulator.
E370 1,4-Heptonolactone Acidity regulator.
E380 Tri-ammonium citrate Acidity regulator; may interfere with liver and pancreas function. Approved in the EU.
E381 Ammonium ferric citrates Acidity regulator; essential mineral, food acid stemmed from citric acid; used as a dietary iron supplement in breakfast cereals and dietary formulas.
E383 Calcium glycerylphosphate Acidity regulator.
E384 Isopropyl citrate Acidity regulator.
E385 Calcium disodium EDTA Sequestrant. Approved in the EU.
E386 Disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate (Disodium EDTA) Sequestrant.
E387 Oxystearin Stabiliser.
E388 Thiodipropionic acid  
E389 Dilauryl thiodipropionate  
E390 Distearyl thiodipropionate  
E391 Phytic acid  
E392 Extracts of rosemary Approved in the EU.
E399 Calcium lactobionate  
E400-E499 - Thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers
E400 Alginic acid Emulsifier; stemmed from seaweed; used in custard mix, cordial, flavored milk, ice blocks, thickened cream and yoghurt; no known adverse effects in small quantities, large quantities can inhibit the absorption of some nutrients. Approved in the EU.
E401 Sodium alginate Emulsifier; see 400. Approved in the EU.
E402 Potassium alginate Emulsifier; see 400. Approved in the EU.
E403 Ammonium alginate Emulsifier; see 400. Approved in the EU.
E404 Calcium alginate Emulsifier; see 400. Approved in the EU.
E405 Propylene glycol alginate Emulsifier; vegetable gum, stemmed from petroleum; see separate entry. Approved in the EU.
E406 Agar Stabiliser; vegetable gum stemmed from red seaweed; sometimes used as a laxative, found in manufactured meats and ice cream
E407 Carrageenan Emulsifier; a fibre extracted from seaweed, it has recently been linked with cancer because it may become contaminated when ethylene oxide is added to an inferior product, this results in ethylene chlorohydrin forming, a highly carcinogenic compound; linked to toxic hazards, including ulcers and cancer; the most serious concerns relate to degraded carrageenan, which is not a permitted additive; however, native carrageenan, which is used, may become degraded in the gut. Approved in the EU.
E407a Processed eucheuma seaweed Emulsifier. Approved in the EU.
E408 Bakers yeast glycan  
E409 Arabinogalactan  
E410 Locust bean gum Emulsifier; stemmed from Carob or Locust bean tree Ceratonia silique; used in lollipops, cordials, essences, some flour products, dressings, fruit juice drinks; frequently used as a caffeine-free chocolate substitute; may lower cholesterol levels. Approved in the EU.
E411 Oat gum Stabiliser.
E412 Guar gum Stabiliser; stemmed from the seeds of Cyamoposis tetragonolobus of Indian origin; fed to cattle in the US; can cause nausea, flatulence and cramps, may reduced cholesterol levels. Approved in the EU.
E413 Tragacanth Emulsifier; resin form the tree Astragalus gummier; used in foods, drugs including nasal solutions, elixirs and tablets; also used as a binder in cosmetics; possible contact allergy. Approved in the EU.
E414 Acacia Emulsifier; stemmed from the sap of Acacia Senegal; easily broken down by the human digestive system; possible allergen, soothes irritations of mucous membranes. Approved in the EU.
E415 Xanthan gum Emulsifier; stemmed from the fermentation of corn sugar with a bacterium. Approved in the EU.
E416 Karaya gum Emulsifier; stemmed from the tree Sterculia urens; often used with Carob (E 410), in ice cream, custard and sweets, as a filler for its capability to multiply its volume by 100 times with the addition of water; possible allergen. Approved in the EU.
E417 Tara gum Emulsifier; stemmed from the tara bush, Caesalpinia Spinosa is indigenous to Equator and Peru and is grown in Kenya. Approved in the EU.
E418 Gellan gum Emulsifier. Approved in the EU.
R419 Gum ghatti Emulsifier.
E420 Sorbitol Artificial sweetener and humectant; stemmed from glucose, either obtained from berries or synthesized; used in lollipops, dried fruit, pastries, confectionery, low calorie foods, pharmaceutical syrups and ophthalmic preparations and is the seventh most widely used preservative in cosmetics; not permitted in foods for infants and young children, can cause gastric disturbance. Approved in the EU.
E421 Mannitol Artificial sweetener and humectant; stemmed from seaweed or the manna ash tree; possible allergen, not permitted in infant foods because of its ability to cause diarrhea and kidney dysfunction, also may cause nausea, vomiting; typical products are low calorie foods. Approved in the EU.
E422 Glycerol Humectant and sweetener; oily colorless alcohol; stemmed by decomposition of natural fats with alkalis; usually as a by-product of soap making using animal fat or vegetable oil; can be obtained from petroleum products sometimes synthesized from propylene or fermented from sugar; used in flexible coatings on sausages and cheeses, also in crystallized and dried fruit, liqueurs and vodka. Glycerin has been shown to protect against DNA damage induced by tumor promoters, ultraviolet lights and radiation, presumably via free radical scavenging; large quantities can cause headaches, thirst, nausea and high blood sugar levels. typical products are liquors, confectionery, dried fruit, low calorie foods. Approved in the EU.
E424 Curdlan  
E425 Konjac Emulsifier. Approved in the EU. May not be used in confectionery owing to choking risk.
E426 Soybean hemicellulose Approved in the EU.
E427 Cassia gum Approved in the EU.
E429 Peptones  
E430 Polyoxyethene (8) stearate Stabiliser.
E431 Polyoxyethene (40) stearate Emulsifier. Approved in the EU.
E432 Polysorbate 20 Emulsifier. Approved in the EU.
E433 Polysorbate 80 Emulsifier; stemmed from animal fatty acids; used as synthetic flavorings, surfactants, defoaming agents and dough conditioners; may increase the absorption of fat-soluble substances. Approved in the EU.
E434 Polysorbate 40 Emulsifier. Approved in the EU.
E435 Polysorbate 60 Emulsifier; see 433. Approved in the EU.
E436 Polysorbate 65 Emulsifier; see 433. Approved in the EU.
E440a Pectin Emulsifier; naturally occurring in the skins of apples; used to thicken jams, jellies and sauces; large quantities may cause temporary flatulence or intestinal discomfort. Approved in the EU.
E440b Aminated pectin Emulsifier; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E441 Gelatin Geling agent; possible allergen, may contain 220, asthmatics and people allergic to sulphites beware.
E442 Ammonium phosphatides Emulsifier; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E443 Brominated vegetable oil Emulsifier.
E444 Sucrose acetate isobutyrate Emulsifier.
E445 Glycerol esters of wood rosins Emulsifier. Approved in the EU.
E446 Succistearin  
E450 Diphosphates Emulsifier; phosphates in food are a great group of substances; are being used in foods such as powdered milk or cream, processed cheese, fish, dried fruit, jam, marmalade, sauce, jelly, soft drinks, chocolate, confections, and baby food; also used for making detergent; they are not as dangerous as public opinion; the activity of phosphates in case of hiperactivity of children is still unknown; high intakes may upset the calcium/phosphate equilibrium. Approved in the EU.
E451 Triphosphates Emulsifier; see 450. Approved in the EU.
E452 Polyphosphates Emulsifier; can alter the metabolytical activity in humans; in addition to modified starch, they may cause calcification of the pelvic region in rats; they intensify the activity of heavy metals making them easier to cross the intestine wall; they may contain a lot of impurities; in Japan, a group of children were intoxicated with arsine as impurity of ortophosphate used in food. Approved in the EU.
E460 Cellulose Emulsifier;  no adverse effects known. Approved in the EU.
E461 Methyl cellulose Emulsifier; can cause flatulence, distension, intestinal obstruction. Approved in the EU.
E463 Hydroxypropyl cellulose Emulsifier. Approved in the EU.
E464 Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose Emulsifier; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E465 Ethyl methyl cellulose Emulsifier; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E466 Carboxy methyl cellulose, Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose Emulsifier; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E467 Ethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose  
E468 Crosslinked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Croscarmellose) Emulsifier. Approved in the EU. This additive is under discussion and may be included in a future amendment to the Directive on miscellaneous additives.
E469 Sodium caseinate Emulsifier; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E470 Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium salts of fatty acids Anti-caking agent. Approved in the EU.
E471 Mono & di glycerides of fatty acids Emulsifier; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E472 Fatty acid esters of glycerides Emulsifier; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E473 Sucrose esters of fatty acids Emulsifier; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E474 Sucroglycerides Emulsifier. Approved in the EU.
E475 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids Emulsifier; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E476 Polyglycerol polyricinoleate Emulsifier; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E477 Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids Emulsifier; stemmed from petroleum; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E478 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propane-1 Emulsifier.
E479b Thermally oxidized soy bean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids Emulsifier. Approved in the EU.
E480 Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate Emulsifier; awaiting results of studies.
E481 Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate Emulsifier; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E482 Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate Emulsifier; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E483 Stearyl tartrate Emulsifier. Approved in the EU.
E484 Stearyl citrate Emulsifier.
E485 Sodium stearoyl fumarate Emulsifier.
E486 Calcium stearoyl fumarate Emulsifier.
E487 Sodium laurylsulphate Emulsifier.
E488 Ethoxylated Mono- and Di-Glycerides Emulsifier.
E489 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester Emulsifier.
E490 Propane-1,2-diol  
E491 Sorbitan mono stearate Emulsifier; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E492 Sorbitan tristearate Emulsifier; may increase absorption of fat-soluble substances. Approved in the EU.
E493 Sorbitan monolaurate Emulsifier. Approved in the EU.
E494 Sorbitan mono-oleate Emulsifier. Approved in the EU.
E495 Sorbitan monopalmitate Emulsifier. Approved in the EU.
E496 Sorbitan trioleate Emulsifier.
E497 Polyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene polymers  
E498 Partial polyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids of castor oil  
E500-E599 - Acidity regulators, anti-caking agents
E500 Sodium carbonates Raising agent; no known adverse effects in small quantities. Approved in the EU.
E501 Potassium carbonates Acidity regulator; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E503 Ammonium carbonates Acidity regulator; irritant to mucous membranes. Approved in the EU.
E504 Magnesium carbonate Acidity regulator; medically used as an antacid and laxative. Approved in the EU.
E505 Ferrous carbonate Acidity regulator. Approved in the EU.
E507 Hydrochloric acid Acidity regulator; safe in small quantities. Approved in the EU.
E508 Potassium chloride Large quantities can cause gastric ulceration. Approved in the EU.
E509 Calcium chloride Firming agent; stemmed from brine. Approved in the EU.
E510 Ammonium chloride Improving agent; should be avoided by people with impaired liver or kidney function. Typical products are flour products. Approved in the EU.
E511 Magnesium chloride Firming agent; magnesium is an essential mineral. Approved in the EU.
E512 Stannous chloride Antioxidant. Approved in the EU.
E513 Sulphuric acid Acidity regulator. Approved in the EU.
E514 Sodium sulphates Acidity regulator; may upset the body's water balance. Approved in the EU.
E515 Potassium sulphates No known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E516 Calcium sulphate Stemmed from limestone. Approved in the EU.
E517 Ammonium sulphate Acidity regulator. Approved in the EU.
E518 Magnesium sulphate Firming agent; a laxative.
E519 Copper sulphate Preservative.
E520 Aluminium sulphate Firming agent. Approved in the EU.
E521 Aluminium sodium sulphate Firming agent. Approved in the EU.
E522 Aluminium potassium sulphate Acidity regulator. Approved in the EU.
E523 Aluminium ammonium sulphate Acidity regulator. Approved in the EU.
E524 Sodium hydroxide Acidity regulator. Approved in the EU.
E525 Potassium hydroxide Acidity regulator. Approved in the EU.
E526 Calcium hydroxide Firming agent; no adverse effects in small quantities. Approved in the EU.
E527 Ammonium hydroxide Acidity regulator. Approved in the EU.
E528 Magnesium hydroxide Acidity regulator. Approved in the EU.
E529 Calcium oxide Improving agent; safe in small quantities. Approved in the EU.
E530 Magnesium oxide Anti-caking agent. Approved in the EU.
E535 Sodium ferrocyanide Anti-caking agent; no adverse effects known. Approved in the EU.
E536 Potassium ferrocyanide Anti-caking agent; by-product of coal gas production; low toxicity. Approved in the EU.
E537 Ferrous hexacyanomanganate Anti-caking agent.
E538 Calcium ferrocyanide Anti-caking agent. Approved in the EU.
E539 Sodium thiosulphate Antioxidant.
E540 Dicalcium diphosphate Emulsifier.
E541 Sodium aluminium phosphate, Acidic Emulsifier. Approved in the EU.
E542 Bone phosphate Anti-caking agent; stemmed from bones; used in dried milk for coffee machines
E543 Calcium sodium polyphosphate Emulsifier.
E544 Calcium polyphosphates Emulsifier.
E545 Ammonium polyphosphates Emulsifier.
E550 Sodium silicates Anti-caking agent.
E551 Silicon dioxide (Silica) Anti-caking agent; no adverse effects are known in food use. Approved in the EU.
E552 Calcium silicate Anti-caking agent; stemmed from limestone and diatomaceous earth (the silicified skeletons of diatoms, a single celled plankton), antacid; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E553a Magnesium silicates Anti-caking agent. Approved in the EU.
E553b Talc Anti-caking agent; has been linked to stomach cancer, typical products are polished rice, chocolate, confectionery. Approved in the EU.
E554 Sodium aluminium silicate Anti-caking agent; used in salt, dried milk substitutes and flours; aluminium is known to cause placental problems in pregnancy and has been linked to Alzheimer's. Approved in the EU.
E556 Calcium aluminium silicate Anti-caking agent; stemmed from minerals; used in milk powders; see E554. Approved in the EU.
E558 Bentonite Anti-caking agent; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E559 Aluminium silicate (Kaolin) Anti-caking agent; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E560 Potassium silicate Anti-caking agent.
E561 Vermiculite  
E562 Sepiolite  
E563 Sepiolitic clay  
E565 Lignosulphonates  
E566 Natrolite-phonolite  
E570 Stearic acid Anti-caking agent; possibly of animal origin; see stearates. Approved in the EU.
E572 Magnesium stearate Anti-caking agent; no known adverse effects in food use.
E574 Gluconic acid Acidity regulator. Approved in the EU.
E575 Glucono delta-lactone Sequestrant; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E576 Sodium gluconate Sequestrant. Approved in the EU.
E577 Potassium gluconate Sequestrant; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E578 Calcium gluconate Firming agent; no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E579 Ferrous gluconate Food coloring agent; stemmed from iron and glucose; used in olives, iron supplements; safe in small amounts. Approved in the EU.
E580 Magnesium gluconate  
E585 Ferrous lactate Food coloring agent. Approved in the EU.
E586 4-Hexylresorcinol Antioxidant. Approved in the EU.
E598 Synthetic calcium aluminates  
E599 Perlite  
E600-E699 - Flavor enhancers
E620 Glutamic acid Flavor enhancer; salt substitute; amino acid present in many animal and vegetable proteins, stemmed commercially from bacteria; might cause similar problems as MSG(E621), young children should avoid it. Approved in the EU.
E621 Monosodium glutamate (MSG) Flavor enhancer; stemmed from the fermentation of molasses, salt substitute; adverse effects appear in some asthmatic people, not permitted in foods for infants and young children; typical products are canned vegetables, canned tuna, dressings, many frozen foods
E622 Monopotassium glutamate Flavor enhancer; can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps; typical products are low sodium salt substitutes. Approved in the EU.
E623 Calcium diglutamate Flavor enhancer; salt substitute, no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E624 Monoammonium glutamate Flavor enhancer; salt substitute, no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E625 Magnesium diglutamate Flavor enhancer; salt substitute, no known adverse effects. Approved in the EU.
E626 Guanylic acid Flavor enhancer; may trigger gout. Approved in the EU.
E627 Disodium guanylate Flavor enhancer; isolated from sardines or yeast extract; may trigger gout, not permitted in foods for infants and young children. Approved in the EU.
E629 Calcium guanylate Flavor enhancer; may trigger gout. Approved in the EU.
E630 Inosinic acid Flavor enhancer. Approved in the EU.
E631 Disodium inosinate Flavor enhancer; may be prepared from meat or sardines; may trigger gout, not permitted in foods for infants and young children. Approved in the EU.
E633 Calcium inosinate Flavor enhancer; may trigger gout. Approved in the EU.
E634 Calcium 5'-ribonucleotides Flavor enhancer. Approved in the EU.
E635 Disodium 5'-ribonucleotide Flavor enhancer; may be associated with itchy skin rashes up to 30 hours after ingestion; rashes may vary from mild to dramatic; the reaction is dose-related and cumulative, some individuals are more sensitive than others; typical foods include flavored chips, instant noodles and party pies. Approved in the EU.
E640 Glycine and its sodium salt Flavor enhancer. Approved in the EU.
E650 Zinc acetate Flavor enhancer. Approved in the EU.
E900-E999 - Glazing agents and sweeteners
E900 Dimethyl polysiloxane Anti-caking agent; silicone based. Approved in the EU.
E901 Beeswaxes Glazing agent; used to wax fruit; see bee products; occasionally causes allergic reactions. Approved in the EU.
E902 Candelilla wax Glazing agent. Approved in the EU.
E903 Carnauba wax Glazing agent; stemmed from a South American palm; used in cosmetics and inks, and to wax fruit; occasionally causes allergic reactions. Approved in the EU.
E904 Shellac Glazing agent; stemmed from insects; occasionally causes irritations of the skin. Approved in the EU.
E905 Paraffins Approved in the EU.
E905a Mineral oil Anti-foaming agent.
E905b Petrolatum  
E905c Petroleum wax Glazing agent.
E906 Gum benzoic Flavor enhancer.
E907 Crystalline wax Glazing agent.
E908 Rice bran wax Glazing agent.
E909 Spermaceti wax Glazing agent.
E910 Wax esters Glazing agent.
E911 Methyl esters of fatty acids Glazing agent.
E912 Montanic acid esters Glazing agent. Approved in the EU.
E913 Lanolin Glazing agent; stemmed from sheep wool.
E914 Oxidized polyethylene wax Glazing agent. Approved in the EU.
E915 Esters of colophony Glazing agent.
E916 Calcium iodate  
E917 Potassium iodate  
E918 Nitrogen oxides  
E919 Nitrosyl chloride  
E920 L-Cystein Improving agent; flour treatment agent stemmed from animal hair and chicken feathers. Approved in the EU.
E921 L-Cystin Improving agent; see E920.
E922 Potassium persulphate Improving agent.
E923 Ammonium persulphate Improving agent.
E924 Potassium bromate Improving agent; large quantities can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, pain. Typical products are flour products.
E924b Calcium bromate Improving agent.
E925 Chlorine Preservative, bleach, improving agent; destroys nutrients, carcinogen, in some areas tab water is contaminated with it, to make it 'safer' to drink. Typical products are flour products.
E926 Chlorine dioxide Bleach; see 925.
E927a Azodicarbonamide Improving agent.
E927b Carbamide Improving agent. Approved in the EU.
E928 Benzoyl peroxide Bleach; approved by FDA for bleaching the carotenoids in refined flours; asthmatics and people with a history of allergies must beware, see 210.
E929 Acetone peroxide  
E930 Calcium peroxide Bleach.
E938 Argon Packaging gas. Approved in the EU.
E939 Helium Packaging gas. Approved in the EU.
E940 Dichlorodifluoromethane Packaging gas.
E941 Nitrogen Propellant; used in freezing and vacuum packing; seems safe. Approved in the EU.
E942 Nitrous oxide Propellant; seems safe in small quantities. Approved in the EU.
E943a Butane Propellant. Approved in the EU.
E943b Isobutane Propellant. Approved in the EU.
E944 Propane Propellant. Approved in the EU.
E945 Chloropentafluoroethane Propellant.
E946 Octafluorocyclobutane Propellant.
E948 Oxygen Packaging gas.
E949 Hydrogen Packaging gas. Approved in the EU.
E950 Acesulfame potassium (Acesulfame K) Sweetener; high-intensity, non-caloric sweetener; it is about 200 times sweeter than sugar; discovered in 1967 by Hoechst AG; also called Sunett as brand name; used for baked goods, frozen desserts, candies, dairy products, confectionery, pharmaceuticals, oral hygiene, and, most recently, beverages; has not been approved for use in such a wide range of foods; The Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) includes the artificial sweeteners aspartame, saccharine, and acesulfame K as part of their list of the Ten Worst Additives; all three of these sweeteners have been found to cause cancer in animals and may increase your risk of cancer. Approved in the EU.
E951 Aspartame Sweetener;  too many adverse effects possible to list, some people are allergic to aspartame, migraine headaches a common reaction in these people. Approved in the EU.
E952 Cyclamic acid Sweetener; calcium & sodium cyclamate, artificial sweetener; known to cause migraines and other reactions, can be carcinogenic, caused damage to rats testicles and mouse embryos in tests, banned in the US and UK due its links with cancer. Approved in the EU.
E953 Isomalt Sweetener; sugar-free sweetener; a mixture of two disaccharide alcohols gluco mannitol and gluco sorbitol; it is being used for several years in products such as hard candies, toffee, lollipops, fudge, wafers, cough drops and throat lozenges; extensive research has been conducted on the effect of isomalt on blood glucose and insulin levels; this research shows that, after ingestion of isomalt, blood glucose and insulin values do not differ significantly from baseline levels in people who have either Type I or Type II diabetes. Approved in the EU.
E954 Saccharines Sweetener; calcium & sodium saccharin; artificial sweetener stemmed from toluene (a known carcinogen); banned in 1977 in the US, but reinstated subject to strict labelling starting: Use of this product may be hazardous to your health, this product contains saccharin which has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. Approved in the EU.
E955 Sucralose Sweetener; artificial sweetener; available for several years in many parts of the world, it was only approved for sale in the US in early 1998; it is now available in a few products, and is finally becoming generally available in stores as a sweetener for table and cooking. Approved in the EU.
E956 Alitame Sweetener.
E957 Thaumatin Flavor enhancer; a protein stemmed from the tropical plant Thaumococcus danielli; used to sweeten wines, bread and fruit. Approved in the EU.
E958 Glycyrrhizin Flavor enhancer.
E959 Neohesperidine dihydrochalcone Flavor enhancer. Approved in the EU.
E960 Steviol glycosides Sweetener. Approved in the EU.
E961 Neotame Sweetener. Approved in the EU.
E962 Aspartame-acesulfame salt Sweetener. Approved in the EU.
E965 Maltitol Humectant; starch decomposed with digestive enzymes; used in confectionery, dried fruits, low-joule foods; laxative in high concentrations. Approved in the EU.
E966 Lactitol Sweetener. Approved in the EU.
E967 Xylitol Sweetener; humectant, found in raspberries, plums, lettuce and endives, though produced for commercial purposes from wood pulp; caused kidney stones and a diuretic effect on test rats: a waste of time and the lives of the rats, for the JEFCA in 1983 ruled the tests invalid relative to humans, the symptoms caused by "physiological disturbances" in the rats, we can only imagine what conditions led to upset rats; used in low-joule foods and carbohydrate modified sweets, ice cream and jams. Approved in the EU.
E968 Erythritol Humectant. Approved in the EU.
E999 Quillaia extract Foaming agent, emulsifier, natural surfactant; stemmed from chilean soap bark tree (Quillaia Saponaria); used in beer and soda; known to promote healing and reduce excessive oiliness in the skin. Approved in the EU.
E1000-E1599 - Additional chemicals
E1000 Cholic acid Emulsifier.
E1001 Choline salts Emulsifier.
E1100 Amylase Stabiliser, flavour enhancer; stemmed from mold mushroom or pig pancreas
E1101 Proteases Stabiliser, flavour enhancer.
E1102 Glucose oxidase Antioxidant.
E1103 Invertase Stabiliser. Approved in the EU.
E1104 Lipases  
E1105 Lysozyme Preservative.
E1200 Polydextrose Stabiliser, thickening agent, humectant, carrier; seems safe in small doses. Approved in the EU.
E1201 Polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVP Stabiliser; dispersing agent, coating for tablets; used in artificial sweeteners. Approved in the EU.
E1202 Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, PVPP Stabiliser; clarifying agent for wine and beer (for removing phenolic compounds), color and colloidal stabilizer. Approved in the EU.
E1203 Polyvinyl alcohol Approved in the EU.
E1204 Pullulan Approved in the EU.
E1400 Dextrin (Dextrins, roasted starch white and yellow) Thickening agent.
E1401 Modified starch (Acid-treated starch) Thickening agent.
E1402 Alkaline modified starch Thickening agent.
E1403 Bleached starch Thickening agent.
E1404 Oxidized starch Thickening agent. Approved in the EU.
E1405 Enzyme treated starch  
E1410 Monostarch phosphate Thickening agent. Approved in the EU.
E1411 Distarch glycerol Emulsifier.
E1412 Distarch phosphate esterified with sodium trimetasphosphate; esterified with phosphorus oxychloride Thickening agent. Approved in the EU.
E1413 Phosphated distarch phosphate Thickening agent. Approved in the EU.
E1414 Acetylated distarch phosphate Thickening agent. Approved in the EU.
E1420 Starch acetate esterified with acetic anhydride Thickening agent. Approved in the EU.
E1421 Starch acetate esterified with vinyl acetate Thickening agent.
E1422 Acetylated distarch adipate Thickening agent. Approved in the EU.
E1423 Acetylated distarch glycerol Thickening agent.
E1430 Distarch glycerine Thickening agent.
E1440 Hydroxy propyl starch Thickening agent. Approved in the EU.
E1441 Hydroxy propyl distarch glycerine Thickening agent.
E1442 Hydroxy propyl distarch phosphate Thickening agent. Approved in the EU.
E1443 Hydroxy propyl distarch glycerol  
E1450 Starch sodium octenyl succinate Thickening agent. Approved in the EU.
E1451 Acetylated oxidised starch Thickening agent. Approved in the EU.
E1452 Starch aluminium octenyl succinate Approved in the EU.
E1501 Benzylated hydrocarbons  
E1502 Butane-1, 3-diol  
E1503 Castor oil Resolving agent.
E1504 Ethyl acetate Flavor solvent.
E1505 Triethyl acetate Foam stabilizer; part becomes alcohol in the body. Approved in the EU.
E1510 Ethanol Alcohol.
E1516 Glyceryl monoacetate Flavor solvent.
E1517 Glycerol acetates Flavor solvent; stemmed from glycerol; used to coat fresh fruit in the US
E1518 Glyceryl triacetate or triacetin Humectant. Approved in the EU.
E1519 Benzyl alcohol  
E1520 Propylene glycol Humectant, wetting agent, dispersing agent, petroleum based; its glycerin like taste has made it popular for children's medications and other elixirs; used in many topical creams and ointments, cosmetics, hair products and deodorants; has been linked with fatal heart attacks (when given intravenously), central nervous system depression and cosmetic or pharmaceutical contact dermatitis. Approved in the EU.
E1521 Polyethylene glycol 8000 Approved in the EU.
E1525 Hydroxyethyl cellulose Thickening agent.