Diet in nephrosis guidelines:
Nephrotic syndrome (nephrosis) is not a distinct disease - it is a set of symptoms resulting from disease processes in the kidney. Characterized by a large loss of protein in the urine, which leads to the formation of generalized edema and lipid disorders. Often the first symptoms of is a foaming urine, caused by the presence of the protein, and increased susceptibility to infection.
Nephrotic syndrome can occur in many diseases, although to the glomerular basement membrane damage are leading immunological, toxic or allergic diseases. The most common cause is inflammation of the kidneys, systemic diseases (e.g. diabetes mellitus), allergies and damage caused by nephrotoxic compounds. In lipid nephrosis abnormal blood lipid levels is observed, which appears in very high cholesterol (often above 400 mg / dl) and triglycerides. Dietary treatment in nephrotic syndrome depends on both the disease and the therapy. The feeding base is a diet high in protein, which must be administered in an amount necessary to cover the normal demands of the body in relation to weight control and supplement the loss of protein in the urine during the day. Usually during the day about 100-120 grams of protein should be provided, including at least 80 g of animal protein. Such a large share of animal protein is necessary because it is wholesome, and thus contains all the essential amino acids in the proportions required by the body.
The main principles of the diet:
• Daily ration of food should be spread over 5-6 meals with a uniform protein content.
• Among the vegetables products, legumes, especially soybeans provides protein with the highest nutritional value
• The most recommended high protein products are lean meats (veal, poultry), fish, low fat cottage cheese, milk and milk drinks with reduced fat content, eggs (if the patient does not have elevated cholesterol levels).
• Limit the amount of salt in your diet in case of swelling and high blood pressure. In the case of small swelling and use of diuretics is sufficient to consume 1-3 grams of salt a day. In practice this means that meals are prepared without salt and the products containing a large quantity of salt should be limited. Salt in food can be replaced with herbal blends. Products that provide the greatest amount of salt includes cheese, canned meat and fish, smoked fish, meats, seasoning mixes, concentrates, sauces, bouillon cubes, powder soup. The source of large quantities of salt are also fast food products - such as french fries, pizza, hamburgers, hot - dogs and salty snacks, chips and crackers. In case of major edema you should give up a ready-made sausages and cook them yourself at home with no salt added.
• Depending on the patient's condition doctor may also recommend reducing the water in diet. The amount of fluid is depending on the amount of urine excreted per day.
• Because of the possibility of lipid abnormalities the proportion of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol should be significantly reduced. The source of saturated fatty acids are primarily fatty meat and meat products, foods cooked in butter, lard and hard margarines and pastry made with butter or hardened vegetable fats. While cholesterol is mostly contained in offal, eggs and red meat. Poultry meats, lean ham and loin are recommended. Definitely avoid pate, cold cuts of canned meat and offal. Permitted ways of cooking are: boiling, steaming, stewing without frying, roasting in the foil on the grill. Frying and stewing preceded with roast are not recommended.
• In the case of steroids treatment in addition pay attention to energy supply, adequate intake of calcium and simple sugars. Long-term steroid treatment increases appetite and leads to weight gain or obesity. Avoid high-calorie products, such as sweets, cakes and fatty foods. Steroids used in a long time also adversely affect bone mineralization, which can lead to osteoporosis. So that, diet must contain adequate amounts of calcium. The RDA for calcium varies (depending on gender, age and physiological state), from 800 to 1200 mg / day. This means that to cover the daily demand for this mineral in the amount of 1000 mg, you should put into a diet daily: 3 cups milk or 2 cups of milk and a cup of plain yoghurt (175 g) or a glass of kefir, 100 g of soy, 2 slices of cheese and 100 g of spinach. It must be remembered that the cheese, although it is an excellent source of calcium, it provides, unfortunately, a large amount of sodium and fat.
• The diet should also contain adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals. Therefore, for every meal of the day vegetables and fruits should be included. In the remission of the disease dietary recommendations are not as restrictive. The amount of protein in the diet decreases, and should correspond to the requirements specified by the standards body of healthy people. No need to restrict fluids, and we can put a soup and larger quantities of milk and juices into the menu. You can also return to the ready-made sausages and bread with salt. When preparing dishes still don’t add salt.
Example - the diet in nephrotic syndrome:
Breakfast: Slim cottage cheese with radishes, bread with roasted loin of pork (no salt), apple juice
Lunch: bread with roasted turkey (without salt), salad with chicory
Dinner: Baked fish, mashed potatoes, salad with celery, apples and yoghurt
Afternoon snack: peach or apple, natural cheese
Supper: Meatballs in sauce served with rice, salad with lettuce and cucumber, tea