Diet in chronic cardiovascular guidelines:
Chronic heart failure is a disease of the circulatory system, in which the heart as a whole, or one of its chambers, is not able to perform the systolic and diastolic work. Depending on the severity of disease, increased heart rate, abnormal blood pressure, shortness of breath (often paroxysmal), swelling (especially of the lower limbs), cyanosis is observed. Causes of heart failure may be different. Starting from high blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmia, by congenital heart disease, pericarditis to myocardial infarction.
Heart failure can be classified depending on the severity of the disease:
• stage I - no symptoms of heart failure at rest and with ordinary exertion;
• stage II - fatigue and shortness of breath appears with the larger exertion;
• stage III - symptoms occur every time, even during a little exertion, which unfortunately results in the need to limit physical activity;
• stage IV - symptoms of failure are present even at rest and at the slightest physical exertion.
Symptomatic treatment of heart failure is based, in addition to the use of medication, mainly in a reduction in cardiac workload by reducing physical activity and weight loss if the patient is overweight or obese. It is also a diet low in salt, sometimes with fluid restriction.
Not much of fat
With such a wide variation in symptoms, with the arranging the diet is particularly important to determine the daily energy needs, especially since most patients leads "half lying" lifestyle, with greatly reduced physical activity. Therefore, a diet should not exceed 1500-2000 kcal / day. This energy level does not allow for the deposition of excess energy in fat tissue of the patient. In the case of overweight dietary energy should be further limited for weight loss. In order to reduce the calorie and animal origin fat content in the diet, lean fish and meat and dairy products with reduced fat content should be chosen. Fat should not provide more than 30% of the diet. The amount of protein increases to 1.5-2 g / 1 kg of body weight due to the use of diuretics.
Not much of salt
Reducing the amount of sodium in the diet is caused by renal retention of sodium ions (and hence water) leads to the formation of edema. In recent years, recommendations for the allowable amount of sodium in your diet changed significantly. Until recently, been used more restrictive diets, even without sodium, which gives up to now thanks to the use of diuretics. Sodium free diet, which limit the amount of sodium to 50 mg per day, limits a menu to fruit, fruit juices and rice. The inclusion of meat, cereals and dairy products would exceed the limit of 50 mg sodium. So one-sided diet is associated with significant risk of a shortage of protein, vitamins and minerals. It is also very burdensome for patients. Currently, it is recommended not to exceed 1,200 mg of sodium per day, equivalent to 3 g of salt. To limit the amount of sodium in your diet, you should choose not to use salt when cooking. Because in the beginning it is difficult to get used to a whole new flavor dishes, you can use potassium salt, available in pharmacies. You should also try herbal spices like basil, thyme, tarragon, which give the dishes a slight salty taste. Variety also gives a taste of garlic, horseradish, parsley, dill, cumin, vanilla and lemon juice. Avoid products that provide a lot of salt, such as all types of silage (sauerkraut, pickles), cheese, canned, salted herring, smoked meats, pates, meat offal, chips and snacks. High in sodium are also blend of spices, stock cubes and broths. Large amounts of salt also provides bread, breakfast cereal products (cereals, porridge, muesli), pasta and sausages.
When taking diuretics potassium deficiency often occurs, large amounts are excreted in the urine. Therefore, the diet must contain the products that are the best source of potassium, and hence: the tomatoes, fruits and fruit juices, milk, potatoes and meat. Especially recommended is tomato juice, a cup contains about 620 mg of potassium. Please note, however, whether the producer of juice to improve its taste has not added salt. Then it is better to give the finished juice and make it at home with fresh tomatoes. Among the fruits most potassium include oranges, bananas and avocados. Rich in potassium are also dried fruit.
Lots of vitamin C
Also a significant amount of vitamin is C excreted in the urine. Therefore, it is worth to recall the products which are particularly rich in this vitamin: parsley leaves (177.7 mg vitamin C/100 g of product), red peppers (144 mg), Brussels (94 mg) , broccoli (83 mg), spinach (67.8 mg), kale (64 mg), cabbage (48 mg), lemon and orange (49-50 mg). Often, however, increase in the amount of vitamin C in your diet is not enough and it is essential to take its preparations.
Food easy to digest
Heart failure, very often leads to gastrointestinal dysfunction. Therefore, a diet should be easy to digest, with the exception of food products with long overdue in the stomach. Vegetables, legumes and cruciferous vegetables, if patients react badly to them, should be removed from the diet because of their inflation properties. In order not to burden the digestive tract, daily ration of food should be divided into at least five small volume of meals: Breakfast, lunch, dinner, afternoon snack and supper. Last meal eaten no more than 2-3 hours before bedtime. Due to water retention in the body should rather dispense with the preparation of soups. Limit of the amount of fluid drunk (up to 1 liter per day) is used only in case of excessive thirst, or in very severe cases of circulatory failure. When cooking, avoid frying and stewing preceded roast. The most desirable is boiling and steaming in the water, roasting in the foil and roast free constriction.
Example - the diet in chronic cardiovascular disease:
Breakfast: Milk Soup on oatmeal, roll with margarine and jam
Lunch: Peaches, a piece of cheese quark grain, fruit juice
Dinner: Chicken baked in foil, mashed potatoes, cooked beetroot, carrot and apple
Snack: Natural yoghurt
Supper: White bread with margarine, boiled beef, salad with tomatoes and cucumbers, tea with milk
Breakfast: White bread with margarine, cottage cheese with chives, tea with milk
Lunch: Orange, plain yoghurt
Dinner: Meatballs of veal, dill sauce, boiled potatoes, salad with oil, fruit juice
Snack: Baked apple
Supper: Roll with margarine, cooked fish, tea with milk